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Modern Therapies for burn wounds

Published in: “Emergency Medical Aid” – Russian research and practice journal – 2006, volume 7, No. 3. – pp. 133-134.

Authors:  Kharitonov S.A., Korolyov V.A., Tarakanov A.V. Burns centre, State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

Title:   Modern Therapies for burn wounds 

Key words:  SCENAR therapy, burns.

Annotation:  Modern therapies for burn wounds are described in the article. Methods of sanogenetic activation at all stages of treatment are noted as promising and advanced, as well as the achievements of modern technologies based on biotechnological response which made it possible to create devices with real lack of adaptation period to excitation, which causes response reactions directed to enhance body’s restoration. According to the author, the method of SCENAR-therapy is the most multifunctional and procurable in current conditions. For the purposes of therapy, this method allows us to use cutaneous covering and mucosae which were not affected by burning injuries.

MODERN THERAPIES FOR BURN WOUNDS

Burn treatment is one of the most complicated, labour-consuming and expensive processes in practical medicine, which requires theoretical knowledge and practical skills in various areas of surgery, critical care medicine, traumatology, therapy, microbiology, biochemistry. This specifically concerns deep burns of III B – IV degree, which are treated in hospital only, because skin grafting is necessary for restoration of the cutaneous covering. To enhance wound detersion from necrotic tissues surgical and chemical necrectomy is performed with one-stage or delayed skin grafting.

At different stages of the wound process, local burn treatment aims different objectives. At the first stage of eschar rejection, inflammation and abscess, local treatment is directed to resist infection and to enhance rejection of necrotized tissues. Wet-to-dry dressing with solution of iodophors active to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi and viruses, is used to form dry eschar. Wet-to-dry dressing with other antiseptic solutions are traditionally used – chlorhexidine, dioxidin, furacilin (nitrofurazone), miramistin and others.

Methods of physical action are used to dry wounds – fluidizing beds, infrared irradiation, controllable abacterial environment, laminar air flow (LAF) rooms etc. Unctures are used to inhibit pyoinflamamtory process, which is effective for the wounds’ microflora. Polypharmaceutical ointments with water-soluble (hydropilous) base and silver bearing ointments have become popular in Russia. At the second stage of the wound process – the regeneration – after eschar rejection local conservative treatment should be directed to create good conditions of granulations maturation and to prepare the wound for skin grafting. There are now data of more than 300 wound coverings at different stages of research and development. Nevertheless, a multifunctional drug which could be used at all stages of the wound process of different depth of burns still does not exist.

Drugs containing natural polymers, such as collagen, polysaccharides, cellulose etc. were used to stimulate granulations growth. Synthetic films with or without micropore made of polyurethane, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride etc. became widely used to close burn wounds.

Cutaneous covering restoration through skin grafting is performed after exsection of burn wounds to the level of viable tissues or preparation of granulation tissue. Along with erasion of necrotizing tissues and reduction of bacterial content of the wound, preparation for plastic closing in burn disease should also include correction of body’s overall condition. If these are not performed, decline in the course of the reparative process in the wound can be expected, which will negatively affect the skin grafting.

One of the most serious problems of major burns treatment (more than 15-20%) is impossibility of single-step closing of the burn wound with autografting, due to shortage of donor resources. The problem of donor shortage can be solved by using modern biotechnological methods – grafting of cultivated cells of human derma (human dermal fibroplast, keratinocyte), living dermal equivalent, cultivated dermal substitute. Dermal allograft is taken form human cadaver, from still-born children, “junk” skin after amputation. Sking grafts usually vascularize (and survive) by the 3-5th day of the allotransplantation on adequately prepared wound’s bed. Then a rejection of dermal allograft occurs in about 2 or 3 weeks on average.

Taking under consideration legal and other difficulties of procurement and use of dermal allograft, we consider perforated suilline xenoderma as the best solution for the purposes of temporary biological covering. Moreover, research and use of cultivated human dermal cells and cultivated skin substitutes for the purposes of closing major wound surfaces is a promising and advanced theoretical and practical approach.

Methods for activation of sanogenesis at all stages of treatment should also be advanced. Modern technologies based on biotechnological response made it possible to create devices with real lack of adaptation period to excitation, which causes response reactions directed to enhance body’s restoration. The method of SCENAR-therapy is the most multifunctional and procurable in current conditions. This method allows to use cutaneous covering and mucosae which were not affected by burn injuries.

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THE CENTRAL EFFECT OF THE SCENAR-THERAPY, SELF-RESTORATION OF THE ORGANISM BY THE ACTIVATION OF THE FRONT HYPOTHALAMUS

Chebcasov S.A. Bereshpolova J.I. (Rostov-on-Don)
THE CENTRAL EFFECT OF THE SCENAR-THERAPY, SELF-RESTORATION OF THE ORGANISM BY THE ACTIVATION OF THE FRONT HYPOTHALAMUS

Taking into account the known biological and physiological laws and also the peculiarities of the Scenarinfluence,
it would be natural to suppose that together with the described above peripheral effect, which isdetermined by the secretion of the biologically active substances [1], Scenar must render and the central influence which mobilizes the regulating mechanisms of the self-recovery system of the organism[2].

It could be connected with the moments of synchronism of the brain electrical activity with the leading role of the anterior parasygmatic hypothalamus, which coordinates the activity of the vegetative system in the mode of self restoration [2].

The aim of this work is the experimental testing of the hypothesis, given above and the search of the possible ways to strength the central effect of the Scenar stimulation. As the direct research of the intracerebral structures activity isn’t ethical, and mammals nervous system including the human beings, has very much in common, the research of the central effect was began on the animals with the prospect of usage of the received results in people treating. One of the main tasks was the working-out of the Scenar- stimulation effectiveness criteria.

There were 8 sharp experiments, carried out on the guinea pigs and 12 experiments, carried out on the sleepless rabbits. The electrodes were implanted into the structures of the anterior and the posterior hypothalamus. Cortical leads were carried out from the brain surface, epidermal from the somatosensory and
visual areas. Scenar-influence was carried out, mostly, on the shoulder surface with the frequency of 59,3 Hz.

Pic.1


For the study of the central effect of the Scenar influence the 30-minutes stimulation was used. We found out the increasing of the power of the oscillations in the low frequencies area and the obvious tendency to the development of generalized activity on every lead at the time of irritation and after it. During that in the electrogrames of the guinea pigs the alpha–like spindles (pic 1a) was observed, and in the electrogrames of the kept- awake rabbits, there were, beside that, the outbursts of the oscillations in the sigma rhythm and the appearance of the K-complexes (pic.1b).

Such forms of activity, as it is known, are revealed during the sleep with its heightened tone [3].
Behavioral reaction of the animals is also the evidence of the paradigmatic tone increase. The animal stops to hold the head (weakening of the antigravity muscles), behaves calmly, eyes fall behind (endophtalamitis is the clear sign of the increasing of the parasympathetic tone).

The examples of the electrograme registration of the brain structure of the guinea-pig: A)1,2–Visual cortex; 3,4–somatosensory cortex; 5,6? the anterior hypothalamus; 7,8? the posterior hypothalamus.
B) 1,2- Visual cortex; 3,4 somatosensory cortex; 5,6 the posterior hypothalamus;7,8- the anterior hypothalamus.

Pic2.
The analysis of the Scenar-stimulation effect development on the spectrums of power regularly showed the increase of the slow-wave oscillations in all investigated leads. In some cases the maximum synchronization was observed in 15 minutes but more often it was developed during the first 15 minutes of the stimulation.(pic.2b.c.).

The repetition of the appearance of the generalized synchronization from the experience to the experience is the evidence of the regularity of this event (p<0,01, the criterion of the signs) as the result of the Scenar-influence.

Thus, the main electrtographic effect is revealed in the generalized slow-wave activity of the brain structures.

The examples of the activity development dynamics in the brain structures at the prolonged Scenarstimulation, traced on the spectrums of the power for the guinea-pig(A) and the rabbit(?)–shoulder,(?)-the head against the background(I), 1,5 minutes after having the influence(II), 15 minutes after having stimulation(III), 30 minutes after having stimulation (IV) and then (V) 1–visual cortex; 2?somatosensory cortex;3?anterior hypothalamus;4?posterior hypothalamus.

The peculiarities of the Scenar influence on the different areas of the brain lied in the fact, that the synchronization was better pronounced for the anterior hypothalamus then for the posterior and for the visual cortex than for the somatosensory cortex. Such results could be observed and afterwards. At that, as it was cleared up during the additional treatment of the materials the earliest signs of the synchronization are observed in the somatosensory cortex. The fact of the more pronounced activity of the anterior parasympathetic hypothalamus in comparison with the posterior one sympathetic is the evidence of the leading role of the first one and denotes the increasing of the parasympathetic tone under the influence of the Scenar therapy.

High co-ordination of the activity changes in the visual cortex and in the anterior hypothalamus was found. It turned out to be that the activity of these structures is highly correlated for the rabbits and for the guinea pigs as well In general taking into account the extracts P<0,001.

The marked fact let us judge about the increasing of the anterior hypothalamus activity (the growth of the parasympathetic tone) on the indices of the synchronized activity of the visual cortex and could be used as the criterion of the Scenar-influence effectiveness and also in the EGG researches.

The fact of the major reaction of the visual cortex, instead of the somatosensory after the electroskin irritation is paradoxical on the face of it. But it should be taken in account, that we observe the already developed systemic effect of influence, which covers many structures of brain. It goes without saying that the center of the activity, created by the Scenar- stimulation appears primarily in the somatosensory cortex. This causes the activation of the synchronizing system with its important unit–the anterior hypothalamus. The anterior hypothalamus, in its turn, as it appears from the results, and as it was proved by N.V.Suntsova [4] for other animals, causes the generalized synchronization, characterized by high correlation in the field of the alpha-like oscillations for the anterior hypothalamus and the visual, but not somatosensory cortex. The increased activity of the anterior hypothalamus, determining the increase of the parasympathetic tone stimulates alpha-activity and after that.

This fact deserves a special attention. According the Garcavy’s researches [5] such electro?physiological picture is the correlate of animals and people anteaters reaction training With its very development the researchers pin the important sanitary consequences, in particular, the treating effect of the Scenar device.

Taking into account all the data given in the literature, our results show that the development and keeping afterwards the increased alpha-like activity in the visual cortex, especially after the Scenar-stimulation (pic 2,A,B,C,) can be regarded and as the criterion of the Scenar influence effectiveness and as pointing out on the parasympathetic nature of these reactions.
It’s known that the stimulation of the skull skin, which is characterized mostly by the parasympathetic innervation [6], has very good medical consequences. The irritation of the head’s skin (pic2B) with the help of the 24 needle electrode is characterized by a greater synchronization of the activity then when with the help of the same electrode the skin of the shoulder is treated. Let’s note the fact, that when skull skin of the rabbits was stimulated, they looked like sleeping?they closed their eyes.

This fact points out a considerable increase of the parasympathetic tone. After such stimulation the increased slow-wave activity (parasympathetic tone) can be stored 24 hours after the Scenar treatment.

The role of the synchronization of the slow?wave activity created by the Scenar on the analogy of that, during the state of sleep, can be connected with the easing of the access to the information about the “inner body” of the organism to the screen of the cortex, keeping the “standard of the healthy body” in it. A very important demand for this standard?the stability of the organization?is provided by that fact, that the cells of the brain cortex, unlike other cells of the body, are not replaced by the new ones during the life cycle.

Under the conditions of the active staying awake, which is characterized by the desynchronized activity of the brain structures and high sympathetic tone, the cortex of the brain, as is well known, is unavailable or is available only for the very powerful signals from the inner organs. The different matter is the state of the sleep when there is a high synchronized activity (and parasympathetic tone) [3,7,8].

Similarly in one’s sleep generalized synchronization, created with the help of Scenar influence, makes it possible, that the signals about the state of the “inner body” of the organism can reach the cortex. It also gives the opportunity of the making of the corresponding correcting signals to the intermediate control levels and executive structures. Among them the structures of the front hypothalamus, changing the work of the vegetative system to the mode of the recovery, have the particular role. At that, because of the activity focus, created by the Scenar from the corresponding zones of the small asymmetry, the localization of the affection center is pointed out .Such condition is not the state of sleep, when the generalized activity is very probable. But the sleepy condition, developing, according the clinicians at the effective Scenar influence, is the evidence of the essential similarity of the concerned states .It is proved and by the introspection.

The general scheme of the Scenar influence, in the light of the carried out research (which showed and primordial increase of the synchronized activity in the somatosensory cortex ), may be shown this way. The centers of the activity, created with the help of the Scenar influence, in the somatosensory cortex I and II, through the lemniscus and extralemniscus systems, and also, maybe, straight influences on the hypothalamus on the spinothalamic canal, actives the synchronizing system of the brain with the front, parasympathetic, hypothalamus. The front hypothalamus, in its turn, supports the general synchronization of the cortex and of the subcortical structures, especially over the range of the alpha rhythm in the visual cortex. Under these conditions the sections of the brain, keeping the standard of the healthy “inner body” in them, become
available for the signals from all the inner organs, and among them-the increased with the help of the Scenar influence signals from the hearts of the pathology. ”Checking” of the organism state condition with the standard provides with the working out of the corrective signals, correlated with the state of the whole organism. These corrective signals, directed on the self-restoration are signals to the levels of the.

Intermediate control, most of all to the front parasympathetic hypothalamus and to the executive systems. The achievement of the aim effort is provided with the help of secretion/isolation of the according biologically active substances[1].

As an aftereffect the increased activity of the front hypothalamus is reflected in the according increasing of the alpha-activity of the brain cortex, especially of the visual area. I.e. if there is the sufficient parasympathetic tone, which reflects the activity of the organism, concerning its self-restoration, the increasing power of the alpha activity must be observed in the cervical leads. This is observed as the aftereffect of the Scenar-theraphy.

The results of the comparison of the Scenar-influence on the shoulder and head areas which follows our research let us to speak about the ability of the increasing the Scenar-influence effect with the help of the combined use of the electrodes.

One of the electrodes, the broad one should be placed in this or that area of the increased parasympathetic innervation-the surface of the head, the sacral, the erogenous areas. With the help of the broad electrode the general increasing of the parasympathetic tone is achieved. Another electrode, the remote one is used, as usual, on the according areas of the small asymmetry. This electrode points to the “address” of the according pathology.

We investigated the effect, emergent at the combined influence of the electrodes on the symmetrical areas.

It turned out to be that such kind of stimulation can reduce to the more pronounced effect (pic3).

The combined effect of the narrow and broad electrodes from the symmetric areas of the skin surface (shoulder) causes the synchronizing effect at the 2-minutes’ stimulation: 1?the visual cortex; 2?the somatosensory cortex; 3?the anterior hypothalamus; 4?the posterior hypothalamus; I-before, II-against a background of stimulation, III-in aftereffect.

Thus, it seems to be expedient to carry out the clinical tests with the application of the external Scenar electrode.

Taking into account the picture of the aftereffect, revealed during the researches ,it seem to be possible to carry out the successive usage of the broad and external local electrodes?first the broad one on the zones of the high parasympathetic innervation and then (against a background of developed parasympathetic tone) external on the areas of small symmetry.

LITERATURE.
1. Grinberg Y.Z. the effectiveness of Scenar-therapy. Physiological aspects. //In “Scenar-therapy”, ”Scenar-expertise” collections of articles. Taganrog, 1998, issues 4-8.
2.Chebkasov S.A. Health strategy. The system of structures outstripping self-restoration. The problem of parasympathetic vegetative system activation. Valeology.2000. ?1 p. 80.
3.Karmanova I.G. –What we know about the cycle “staying awake condition-sleep condition” and the reasons of its disorders. St.Peterburg.1998. p. 93.
4.Suntsova N/N/ The anterior brain mechanisms of the sleep development.//Submitting for dissertation for the doctor’s degree. Rostov State university, Rostov-on-Don,2000, p.372.
5.Garkavi L.N. and others. Antistress reaction and activation therapy, M:IMEDIS,1998, p.656.
6.Luvsan Gavaa.Traditional and modern aspects of eastern medicine.M,1992, p.576.
7.Danilova N.N. Psychophysiological diagnostics of functional states, M,1992, p.192.
8.Nozdrachev A.D. and others. General course of human and animals physiology. //BookII Physiology of visceral systems. M,High school,1991, p.6-28.

Benefit in patients with knee osteoarthritis through adjuvant electro auricular acupuncture vs. Manual body stimulation with self-controlled energo neuro adaptive regulation (SCENAR®™)

EFIC5-1157 Late-breaking Poster Sessions, 9th Congress of the European Pain Federation, Vienna, 2015

Benefit in patients with knee osteoarthritis through adjuvant electro auricular acupuncture vs. Manual body stimulation with self-controlled energo neuro adaptive regulation (SCENAR®™)

R. Schukro1 , I. Mandl-Krusche2 , A. Kaider3 , S. Sator-Katzenschlager4
1 Special Anesthesia and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

2 Dept. of Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

3 Center for Medical Statistics Informatics and Intelligent Systems, Medical University of Vienna,Vienna, Austria

4 Dept. of Special Anesthesia and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Introduction: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of knee pain. Alternative approaches such as electrical auricular acupuncture (EAA) are gaining importance. Another alternative treatment aiming to reduce pain is Self Controlled Energo Neuro Adaptive Regulation (SCENAR®™).

Methods: 46 patients were randomized to the EAA group (n=15), to the SCENAR group (n=14) and to the control group (n=15). Amount of rescue medication, pain intensity (NRS), range of motion (ROM) in the sagittal plane and the pain free walking distance in minutes as well as knee function assessment were evaluated on study day 1, 42 and 70.

Results: Comparing the rescue medication after baseline therapy no significant difference was found between the three groups (p=0,86). In the control group we found a median of 1 [Q1 25%=1; Q3 75%=2], in EAA group a median of 0 [Q1=0;Q3=3] and in the Scenar group a median of 0
[Q1=0;Q3=3]. Highly significant differences of amount of rescue medication were found on day 42 and 70 comparing EAA group and control group (p<0,001), as well as in the Scenar group compared
to the control group.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that EAA and Scenar in combination with medical analgesic treatment are superior to medical analgesic treatment alone. Pain relief was maintained one month after the therapy was discontinued in these two complementary methods. Further studies are necessary to evaluate long lasting effects in knee OA.

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SCENAR-therapy effect on the state of the blood plasma redox balance in patients with organ ischemic injury

Reflexology. – 2005 – N3(7). – pp. 37-42.

SCENAR-therapy effect on the state of the blood plasma redox balance in patients with organ ischemic injury

L.V.Klimova, A.V.Tarakanov, A.V. Kartasheva, N.N.Usalyova

Emergency Department, Rostov State Medical University (Rostov-on-Don)
Clinical Trials Department, RITM OKB ZAO (Taganrog)
Emergency Hospital N2 (Rostov-on-Don)

Ischemia and postischemic disorders will always be of current importance in medicine. A large group of diseases, where disturbed circulation or no circulation in the organ or tissue is  one of the main pathogenic trigger, includes such severe diseases as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and acute renal failure (ARF) caused compression injury [1,7].

Ischemia is the trigger element for a number of processes that inhibit the cell functionality at first stages thus helping them to survive in sudden oxygen deficiency. With the tissue reperfusion – restoration of the blood flow – cell injury may continue because of so called oxygen paradox caused by increased production of active oxygen forms and activation of lipid peroxidation (LOP) under these conditions. But reperfusion is the “necessary evil” [4]. The sooner it happens – the less permanent the damage is. In today’s medicine mechanisms of reperfusion injury are called oxidative stress, which changes the redox balance (prooxidant – antioxidant balance) in the body and shows as accumulation of LOP toxic products and compensatory change in component activity of antioxidant system [1, 2, 5, 6].

Today many researches investigate the process of oxidative stress in patients with Q-wave AMI and ARF caused compression injury, when SCENAR-therapy is included into the multiple therapy [3, 8]. They prove that in comparison with other methods multiple therapy with SCENAR-therapy gives better clinical results due to arresting of the oxidative stress phenomena. We decided to continue investigations and find out is there any specific SCENAR-therapy effect on the oxidative stress in patients from the two groups.

Research objective

Investigate is there any specific SCENAR-therapy effect on the state of the blood plasma redox balance in patients with Q-wave AMI and ARF caused by compression injury.

Research task

Compare initial level and dynamics of primary, secondary and final LOP products in the blood plasma of patients with the indicated pathology: conjugated dienes (CD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and schiff bases (SB), as well as catalase (CA) and ceruloplasmin (CP) activity.

Materials and methods

Considering the research tasks and objectives we compared biochemical blood indices in both groups where patients were given standard treatment complemented with skin stimulation using SCENAR-97.4.

I group – 17 patients with ARF caused by compression injury.

The patients were treated using one of the two general stimulation methods: “3 pathways and 6 points” and “collar zone, forehead, adrenals” in the subjectively dosed mode (SDM). The treatment course started on patient’s admission to the Acute Hemodialysis Department and included 10 daily sessions. The blood samples for biochemical tests were taken on admission and on the 1-2 day of diuresis recovery. It should be noted that average anuretic period in this group was 11.3±1.3 days.

II group – 30 patients with Q-wave AMI that had contradictions to thrombolytic therapy.

In these group patients were treated using one of the two general stimulation methods: “3 pathways and 6 points” and “collar zone, forehead, adrenals”. Stimulation of the standard treatment zones was complemented with stimulation of heart zone (5-10 min) and pericardium meridian points (PC4, PC6 and PC7) on both arms (2-3 minutes). The treatment course included 10-14 daily sessions and started at the very first day of the disease. The blood samples were taken on admission and on the 16 day of treatment.

The quantity of conjugated dienes (CD) was determined  pectrophotometrically using I.D. Stalnaya method (1977). The content of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) was measured by M.D. Stalnaya  and T.D. Gorishvili method (1977). To determine Schiff Bases (SB), lipids were extracted from plasma using the Bligh-Dyer method (1959). Catalase activity (CA) in the blood plasma was determined using M.A. Korolyuk et al. method (1988). The oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin (CP) was determined using the Revin’s method adapted by V.G.Kolba and V.S.Kamyshnikov (1982).

Indices of patients in both groups were compared with the indices of almost healthy donors-volunteers.

Results and discussion

The content of LOP products and activity of blood plasma enzymic antioxidants in patients with ARF caused by compression injury before and after multiple treatment complemented with SCENAR-therapy are given in the Table 1.

Table 1

Dynamics of LPO products and activity of blood plasma enzymic antioxidants in the patients from I group

Index Donors,

n =20

ARF patients,

(n=17)

Before treatment After treatment
Conjugated dienes,

nmol/mL

13.69±1.08 20.54±2,71 (+50.0%)

?<0.05

14.00±11.90 (+2,3%)

?>0.1; 0.05<?1<0.1

Malonic dialdehyde,

nmol/mL

27.97±2.16 40.58±2.13 (+45,1%)

?<0.01

33.05±2.04 (+18.2%)

0.05<?<0.1; ?1<0.05

Schiff bases,

arbitrary unit/mL

1.41±0.06 1.88±0.10 (+33.3%)

?<0.01

1.58±0.07 (+12.1%)

0.05<?<0.1; ?1<0.05

Catalase,

nmol ?2?2/ mL

16.31±1.24 12.79±1.35 (-21.6%)

0.05<?<0.1

16.05±1.25 (-1.6%)

?>0.1; 0.05<?1<0.1

Ceruloplasmin,

?mol/L

1.31±0.08 0.72±0.09 (-45.0%)

?<0.01

1.08±0.09 (-17.6%)

0.05<P<0.1; ?1<0.05

Note: p – significance of change as compared with donors;

p1 – significance of change as compared with initial values;

numbers in parentheses show the percentage of the index change

as compared with donors;

The table shows that on admission I group patients had essential disbalance in the redox balance of the blood plasma manifested as essential hypernorm of the CD, MDA and SB content by 50.0%, 45.1% and 33% respectively. Activity of blood plasma enzymic antioxidants was low: CA by 21%, CP by 45%. It should be noted that such a decrease in CA activity was not so significant (0.05<p<0.1), while in CP activity it was really significant.

As a result of multiple treatment complemented with SCENAR-therapy by the time diuresis recovered the correlation of free radical LOP intensity and AOS activity changed. Positive dynamics manifested as decrease of MDA, SB and CP activity if compared to the initial values was statistically true (p1<0.05); decrease of CD and CA activity was almost true. Comparison of these indices with the conventional norm showed that CD and CA activity reached it, while MDA, SB and CP activity became closer to the conventional norm. In the very end CD, MDA and SB indices were 2.3%, 18.2% and 12.1% above norm respectively. CA activity changed not so significantly – it increased just by 1.6%, while CP activity increased significantly, but still was 17.6% below the norm.

The level of LPO products accumulation and activity of blood plasma antioxidants in patients with AMI before and after multiple treatment complemented with SCENAR-therapy are given in the Table 2.

Table 2

Dynamics of LPO products and activity of blood plasma enzymic antioxidants in the patients from I group

Index Donors,

n =36

ARF patients,

n=30

Before treatment After treatment
Conjugated dienes,

nmol/mL

12.4 ± 1.7 29.6 ± 1.9

?<0.001 (+138.7%)

23. 7 ± 1.8 (+91.1%)

?<0.001; ?1< 0.05

Malonic dialdehyde,

nmol/mL

20.9 ± 1.6 47.6 ± 1.7

?<0.001 (+127.8%)

44.4 ± 1.5 (+112.4%)

?<0.001; p1 > 0.1

Schiff bases,

arbitrary unit/mL

1.06 ± 0.09 1.65 ± 0.13

?<0.001 (+55.7%)

1.09 ± 0.07 (+2.8%)

p>0.1; ?1<0.005

Catalase,

nmol ?2?2/ mL

17.30 ± 1.37 14.50 ± 2.20

p>0.1 (-16.2%)

10.23 ± 1.04 (-40.9%)

?<0.001; 0.05<p1<0.1

Ceruloplasmin,

?mol/L

1.08 ± 0.08 1.40 ± 0.11

p<0.05 (+29.6%)

1.41 ± 0.09 (+30.6%)

p<0.05; ?1>0.1

Note:  p – significance of change as compared with donors;

p1 – significance of change as compared with initial values;

numbers in parentheses show the percentage of the index change

as compared with donors;

In II group patients the content of all LPO products before treatment was significantly (p<0.001) above the control values: CD – by 138.7%, MDA– by 127.8% and SF – by 55.7%. Moreover changes in antioxidant system functionality were detected. Blood samples before treatment showed that in patients’ blood plasma CP oxidative activity increased by 29.6%, while dynamics of CA activity was not significant if compared to the control values.

Complementing standard therapy with SCENAR-therapy significantly helped to inhibit intensity of all LOP stages. That was showed as decrease of blood plasma molecular products. The CD level decreased significantly, but still was above the control values by 91.1%. The tendency of MDA dynamics was the same and after the treatment still was 112.4% above the control values. The most evident and intense effect of multiple therapy complemented with SCENAR-therapy was on toxic final LOP products, SB level by the end of the treatment course didn’t significantly differ from the donor indices. High level of CP oxidative activity still remained by the end of the treatment course and was 30.6% above the conventional norm. CA activity during the treatment decreased by 40.9% if compared to the normal values, but if compared to the initial values only insignificant decrease was registered.

The indices of CD, MDA and SB in the blood plasma in patients with ARF caused compression injury and in patients with AMI before and after the treatment (percentagewise compared to conventional norm) are given in the Diagram 1.

Diagram 1

Dynamics of CD, MDA and SB indices in the blood plasma of both groups

The Diagram 1 shows that before the treatment LOP products of the testees were significantly high. The multiple therapy complemented with SCENAR-therapy caused decrease in the accumulation of primary, secondary and final LOP products.

Dynamics of activity of the blood plasma CA and CP in patients from both groups after the treatment (percentagewise compared to conventional norm) is given in the Diagram 2.

Diagram 2

Dynamics of CA and CP activity in the blood plasma of both groups

 

It was already stated above that catalase activity of the II group patients before the treatment didn’t differ significantly from the conventional norm, only in ARF patients it tended to decrease. It should be noted that essential part of the catalase pool localizes in erythrocyte cytoplasm. In extracellular water it becomes inactive very soon. Increase of CA in the blood plasma can sign that it has released from the erythrocytes as a result of pathologically high membrane permeability or even their destruction [6]. Moreover, this index characterizes utilization rate of hydrogen peroxide in the blood plasma and its decrease during the treatment. That is registered in AMI patients and can be explained as result of generation decrease of active oxygen forms under the influence of the treatment. In the group with ARF patients no significant therapeutic effect on the catalyze activity was registered.

As against to CA, dynamics of CP activity differed significantly in the groups. In I group patients CP activity was 45% lower if compared to the donor values, and in the II group it was 29.6% higher. Such a difference in values can be explained by the period of time the disease aroused. Let’s make it clear. It is known that CP refers to proteins of acute phase and activity decrease in inflammation or after the injury, on one medical evidence by 2-3 times and on another by 30-60%, is considered as compensatory reaction directed to preserve plasma antioxidant potential and maintain copper and zinc metabolism at the optimal level [6]. This reaction was registered in patients with AMI at the very first days of the disease. In patients with compression injury ARF developed in some days after the injury, that’s why by the moment SCENAR-therapy was included into the treatment and blood samples for biochemical indices were made oxidative stress was more intense and manifested in deterioration of plasma capacity, in particular in decrease of CP activity.

The diagram shows that the therapeutic effect on the CP activity in the groups was different. As a result of multiple therapy complemented with SCENAR-therapy in patients with ARF low activity of blood CP significantly increased, while in patients with AMI high activity of main plasma oxidant didn’t change, i.e. compensatory activation of this antioxidant preserved, thus preserving antioxidant capacity of the blood plasma.

Findings

  1. At the very first days of the disease patients with ischemic organ injury, in particular Q-wave myocardial infarction and acute renal failure caused by compression injury, have oxidative stress, which makes the redox balance of the blood plasma disordered.
  2. Comparing the effect of multiple treatment complemented with SCENAR-therapy on the oxidative stress in patients from both groups we detected:
    – universal effect of inhibiting high activity of lipid perioxidation in blood plasma, which manifests as decrease in LOP molecular products accumulation.
    – regulating effect on the influence on the state of antioxidant system activity of blood plasma.

 

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Pathogenetic Principles of SCENAR-therapy in Multiple Therapy of Duodenal Ulcer

Translation from Russian to English Language

Publication: Reflexology Journal, Issue No: 3 (7), 2005, pp. 43-47

Authors: Kochurova I., Cimmerman I., Vladimirsky E. Perm State Medical Academy, Department of faculty therapy, clinical pharmacology, physiotherapy and traditional methods of treatment

Article name: Pathogenetic Principles of SCENAR-therapy in Multiple Therapy of Duodenal Ulcer

Key words: SCENAR, gastroenterology, duodenal ulcer

Summary: We tried one of the new physical methods based on low-frequency pulse electrotherapy – SCENAR-therapy – as an alternative opportunity of duodenal ulcer management as it normalizes disturbed mechanisms of the body’s adaptive regulation and self-regulation. The influence of SCENAR-therapy on the clinical and functional gastric index of 72 duodenal ulcer patients was studied. Positive SCENAR-therapy effects were revealed in the majority of the patients. The combination of the conservative drug management and SCENAR-therapy shortens ulcer healing, promotes eradication of Helicobacter pylori, and improves the condition of gastro duodenal mucous.

Pathogenetic Principles of SCENAR-therapy in Multiple Therapy of Duodenal Ulcer

Nowadays SCENAR-therapy is in common practice in physiotherapy. SCENAR-therapy is a sort of low-frequency impulse electrotherapy and can be referred to the methods of reflex anesthesia (as the methods of electro acupuncture and transdermal electric stimulation of nerves). Their analgetic effect is connected with activation of endogenous antinociceptive system. Today, we’ve got various arguments of participation of antinociceptive transmitter systems in the mechanisms of reflex anesthesia [11]. The role of opioid, serotonin and noradrenergic systems in realization of reflex analgesia is proved here (F.Cervero, 1995). For treatment procedure conduction by these methods is recommended to choose areas, which are reflexively connected with sickly areas for the purpose of activation mechanisms of segmental inhibition, and also to influence on zones, which are distant from sickly area, for mobilization of central antinociceptive processes.

Parallel with peripheral effect, which is determined by peripheral of biologically active substances [6], the SCENAR-therapy method has central effect, mobilizing regulative mechanisms of system of organism recovery [27]. In many respects, it’s connected with the episodes of brain electrical activity synchronization at the leading role of forward hypothalamus, which coordinates the activity of vegetative nervous system [28]. After stimulation the heightened slow-wave activity and parasympathetic tonus can be kept for one day (the aftereffect). In papers of L.X.Garkavy and joint authors [3], there was proved that such electrophysiological picture correlates with antistress reaction of training of the animals and human being.  Exactly after its development, these researchers join the forming of SCENAR-therapy effects. The mechanism of SCENAR-therapy impact is not studied enough. Taking into account the broad pathology spectrum, the researchers make guess-work about the non-specific character of its therapeutic action, i.e. about the active participation of reciprocal non-specific adaptive organism reactions [3, 8].

The mechanism of SCENAR-therapy impact, by data of some authors, is explained as nervous-reflex mechanism with activation of neurohumoral element through the local, segmental and generalized reactions [5, 17], and also from the position of the theory of functional systems forming (after P.K. Anohin) [8, 18]. Recently, some of the researchers have tried to examine various forms of vital activity and also the condition of disease in terms of informative principle [8, 20]. They admit that the basis of disease is formed by dyscrasia (disorder of substances, energies and information), some it becomes evident that one of the tendency of treatment is normalization of the indexes. The medical effects of many modern physiotherapy methods are pointed to activation of protecting organism mechanisms by principle of self-regulation, and some methods of traditional medicine provides the recovery of such homeostasis indexes as energy and information. So the SCENAR-therapy can be examined as the method of orthodox medicine (the section of electrotherapy) on the one side, but the principles and methodology brings it together with traditional methods [18]. Among the main medical effects of SCENAR-therapy we can marked my(o)neurostimulative, analgetic, trophic, local vasoactive, immunomodulatory and etc.[7]

It’s marked, that SCENAR-therapy, parallel with elimination of disorders, determined by the main disease, produces positive shifts from the direction of attendant pathology. Such wide spectrum of SCENAR-therapy impact is explained by the fact that for various diseases, without reference to localization of pathologic process, there can be reactions of the same type, supporting the mobilizing of pathogenesis mechanisms and increasing of organism resistance [3].Finally, the effect of SCENAR-therapy is formed under the participation of various regulative organism systems, they are: nervous, hormonal, immune, etc [6, 18]. Among the pantoclinical effects of SCENAR-therapy, it’s important to point out the activity inhibition of ??? product, producing the antimitotic and cytotoxic actions on alive cells and tissues [16, 23].After the course of SCENAR-therapy is pointed the increasing of activity of catalase and the whole peroxidase activity within 3 and 1,5 times correspondingly, and the decreasing of malonic dialdehyde (???) within 25-30%[2].

The influence of SCENAR-therapy on common adaptive possibilities of organism is appeared in tonus optimization of sympathetic and parasympathetic departments of vegetative nervous system (VNS) [3]. So, the SCENAR-therapy mobilizes the mechanisms, controlling the processes of regeneration, adaptation and regulation, both on local and common levels. These provide the appropriate answer of the organism on the influence of various external agents, demanding the corresponding reactions. In this connection, the SCENAR-therapy method can be applied for various pathologic conditions with the purpose of stimulation of the adaptation processes and the elimination of functional disorders (at their reversibility) [18].

Nowadays SCENAR-therapy is a success in treating of radicular syndrome for the patient with spinal osteochondrosis, the diseases of peripheral nervous system, neurososes, CAD, arterial hypertension and etc.

At once, there is little information of SCENAR therapy possibilities in treating of alimentary organs diseases, including duodenal ulcer. Among the patients with gastroenterological profile, the effect of SCENAR-therapy is marked during the treating of stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer [22], and exacerbation of chronic gastritis [19, 22], acalculous cholecystitis with biliary dyskinesia [4], chronic pancreatitis [14], during combined treatment of viral  hepatitis [15]; at the syndrome of irritated bowels [14], and during  the post-surgical period after cholecystectomy [21].

N.N.Hazova and joint authors [22] give the results of therapeutic effectiveness of SCENAR-therapy method in treating of duodenal ulcer and chronic erosive gastroduodenitis (of children) in combination with the antisecretory (omeprasol),  anthelion bacillus (metronidazole) drugs, antacids and reparants (sea-buckthorn oil). 95% of patients have the scarring of ulcerative defect after 20 days of treating.

The clinical effect was appeared by time reducing of pain syndrome (in 1-2 days), the decreasing of dyspepsia (in 2-3 days), the liquidation of palpational sickliness (in 5-7 days) and the normalization of gastrointestinal tract motion activity (quick elimination of gastroduodenitial and duodenogastric refluxes.

The improvement of condition and spirits and the normalization of dream and appetite became evident with most of children after 2-3 procedures of SCENAR-therapy. There is also described the positive effect in case of duodenal ulcer recidivating complicated by bleeding.

In a number of separate clinical researches was shown, that for the patients with stomach and duodenal ulcer, SCENAR-therapy provides the considerable decreasing of subject symptomatology at the expense of spasmolytic and analgesic action and leads to quick forming of scar, the treatment time reducing and remission prolongation [4]. At the same time, the pain syndrome is stopped usually in 2-3 days, but dyspeptic one – 3-4 days afterwards.

The disappearance of ulcer defect may be observed in 21 days for 89-92% of cases. The peculiarity of healing effect of SCENAR-therapy in case of recurrent stomach ulcer is the closing of ulcer defect by the type of marginal epithelization, and some times without  rough connecting-woven scar formation [19]. G.V.Subbotina observes after history of SCENAR-monotherapy in case of stomach and duodenal ulcer recurrent. She marked the lack of any reccurents (clinical and endoscopic data) for two years after the course of treating [19].

The main recommended zones of treating impact during SCENAR-therapy for patients with duodenal ulcer are: epigastric area and segmental reflex zones [13].

The mode of impact is labial-steady with light compression under the frequency 50-70 Hz and 120-150Hz; the duration of medical séance (exposition)is about 30 minutes; the course is 10-12 procedures daily or every other day [9]. The electro puncture method is also used on appropriate biologically active points [24].

P.P.Lashedko points out the possibility of using SCENAR-therapy with the aim of decreasing of curculatory-microrculatory hypoxia degree and prevention of its development to the patients with erosive-ulcer defects of mucous of stomach and duodenum.  At the same time it’s recommended to start the treating within the next few hours after operation, the procedures must be done every day or two times a day and the impact on the projection area of solar plexus must be also done [12].

Starting from the stomach ulcer pathogenesis conception [25], in keeping with it in its development take part not only local factors of pathogenesis (acido peptic and infectious), but also the disfunctions of adaptive regulation and self-regulation mechanisms, stomach functions on various levels, starting with gastroduodenitial self-regulation system and ending with corticosubcortical relations, the using of SCENAR-therapy during the stomach ulcer recurrent is pathogenetically justified.

At the same time, the specific mechanisms of SCENAR-therapy medical impact during the stomach ulcer recurrent, particular, the character of its influence on acid-forming and motor function of stomach, contamination mucous coat of stomach Hp-infection, the activity and intensity of associated with SU chronic gastritis, vegetative and psycho emotional status of patients, the condition of lipid peroxidation and cerebral hemodynamics  are not studied well. In this connection, we developed the research of SCENAR-therapy medical impact effectiveness during the stomach ulcer recurrent, first of all from the position of its influence on common pathogenetic factors of ulcer-forming [1, 10, and 26].

Task of the Research

To study the possible mechanisms of SCENAR-therapy medical impact on the patients with stomach and duodenal ulcer and estimate its clinical effectiveness both as monotherapy and as a complex with traditional pharmacotherapeutic means (antisecretory and anthelion bacterium) during duodenal ulcer recurrent.

Materials and Methods

72 patients (56 man and 16 women) with clinical and endoscopic signs of duodenal ulcer at the age of 16-65 years (average age was 27,8±1,4years) were examined. They were divided into 3 groups. The first group (26 patients) was treated with the SCENAR-monotherapy, by the devices “SCENAR-97.1” and “SCENAR-97.4” in continuous and individually dosated regimen during 30 minutes (the course is consisted of 10 séances). The 2nd group (21 patients) got SCENAR-therapy against in common with antisecretory therapy (omeprazole 40mg/day, for 2 weeks), the 3rd group (25patients) – got SCENAR-therapy in conjunction with “threefold” 7-daily scheme of eradicative therapy (omeprazole 40mg/day, clarithromycin 1000mg/day, amoxicillin 2000mg/day).

In all groups the impact was done on the epigastric area by segmental-reflex method and transcerebrally by the common influence method [13]. The control group consisted of 25 patients with DU, who got just traditional antiulcer pharmacotherapy.

The duration of disease averages 6,87±1,13 years (from 1 to 30 years). 23 patients (31,94%) suffer this disease for the first time, and the slight and medium-weight clinical course was made with 49 patients (68,06%). The patients with complicated duodenal ulcer course were not included. As for attendant diseases, arterial hypertension were detected at 3 patients (4,2%), chronic bronchitis were detected at 2 patients (2,8%) and vegetative dystonia – at 11 patients. Initially by ???, 59 (819%) of patients suffer from single ulcers, and 13 (18,1%)- from double (“mirror”)  ulcers. At the same time the average proportions of duodenal ulcers were 0,75±0,04cm. The estimation of clinical symptoms were made before treating (the presence of pain syndrome and its’ intensity, dyspepsical effects in the form of heartburn, eructation, nausea and vomiting), ???, endogastric express-pH- metria (with pH registration in cardiac orifice, body and antral department of ulcer).  During the treating were estimated the dynamics of clinical symptoms – first from 2-weeks therapy course, and then – every week, up to the absolute scarring of ulcer defect, the endoscopic control after the condition of mucous coat of stomach and ??? were made, morphologically and with the help of quick urease test were estimated the quality of its contamination Hp, the activity and intensity of inflammatory process. The secretory and motor function of stomach were investigated in dynamics, the vegetative and psycho emotional status of patient were also investigated.

Results and Discussions 

The overwhelming majority of patients before the course of (medical) treatment complained on day and night pains in epigastric, dyspepsical effects of various quality of intensity: heartburn – 55 (76,4%), eructation and vomiting – 13 (18,1%) and 4 (5,6%) of patients. The including of SCENAR-therapy in complex of medical measures was determined by more quick in comparison with control, the liquidation of pain, dyspepsical and asthenovegetative syndromes. In control group the pain syndrome reduction occurred in 2-3 days after, the asthenovegetative effect continued for 4 days longer, the liquidation time of objective clinical symptoms of disease recurrent (local palpatory pain, Mendel’s symptom and the symptom of muscular defense).The quickest liquidation of dyspepsical effect occurred in group of patient who have got SCENAR-therapy with omeprazolon. The asthenovegetative complaints reduced and eliminated in this group (in 3-6 days). SCENAR-monotherapy influenced positively on intensity of pain syndrome.

The essential decreasing of epigastric pain was evident in 2 days (after 1-2 procedures). The analgesic effect of SCENAR-therapy is explained by its possibility for activation of fine peptide nerve fiber and mediates changing in brain tissue of biologically-active materials, which have antinociceptive qualities (glutamic and aspartic acids, serotonin etc.) [6,28], and also by elimination of gastric dismotor, which underlines the pain syndrome during duodenal ulcer. The important criterion of treating was endoscopic research (???-control) of gastro duodenal zone condition (table 1). The scheme of treating with using of SCENAR-monotherapy and its combination with “triple” eradicable therapy allowed to have the quickest speed of ulcer defect scarring.

So, in two weeks of treating the ulcer wasn’t defined in 1st group at 65,38% of patients and at 64% in 3rd group, and after 3 weeks, there are the whole healing with all the patients. At the same time in control group the ulcer defect eliminated at 48% and 76% of patients in 2 and 3 weeks.

Table 1

The time of duodenal ulcers scarring

The group of patients In 2 weeks

(abs, %)

In 3 weeks

(?bs, %)

Time(days)
I group(n=26) 17 (65,38%) 26 (100%) 16,2± 0,68

p<0,05

II group (n=21) 12 (57,14%) 19 (90,48%) 17,12± 1,05

p>0,05

III group (n=25) 16 (64%) 25 (100%) 16,52± 0,69

p?0,05

The control n=25) 12 (48%) 19 (76 %) 19,32±1,16

As a whole, the average time of ulcer scarring in groups with using of SCENAR-therapy is shorter on 3-4days in comparison with control (on average 16,71±0,47 days), here some of the patients as opposed to control group had epithelization of ulcer defect without forming of rough connecting-woven scar. Against a background of treating the diffuse gastroduodenitis of 76,4% of patients transformed in focal one, and mucous tunic was absolutely normal for 4 patients (5,6%). Under the results of quick urease test, breathing test and histological research of biopsy material (methylene blue coloring), most of patients (83,3%) have contamination mucous coat of stomach Hp-infection. The course of SCENAR-therapy didn’t lead to Hp eradication in 1st and 2nd group, but the quality of mucous coat of stomach Hp colonization after the SCENAR-therapy reduced incidentally (p>0,05). At the same time as for the 3rd group, the Hp-infection eradication began by the results both of urease, breathing test and morphological data. As for the 3rd group after the therapy there were occurred the semination in pyloric department mucous coat of stomach Hp-infection (4 patients – 16%)-by the results of quick urease test, and by morphological test – with 3 patients (12%). So, the positive eradication was seen in 88% of cases in 3rd group.

Before the treating most of the patients (84,7%) had the evident hyperacidity of body and antral department of stomach, the moderate hyperacidity (15,3 % of patients) and norm acidity in 2,8%. After the course of SCENAR-monotherapy the increasing of pH in body and antral department of stomach are registered, the increasing of pH level in all departments of stomach (p,0,001) is marked  when SCENAR-therapy was  in conjunction with omeprasol and “triple” scheme of Hp eradication. The immature zone (the place of transition of subacid pH (6,0-4,0)value up to sharply acid (pH<3,0) didn’t undergo any essential changing. There became reliable decreasing of zone of maximal acidity in all investigated groups. The combined therapy in the conjunction with antisecretory and anthelicobacterian

Substances provided the defined abscopal effect on the acid-forming processes in stomach, but the pH-metria indicators in basic groups didn’t differ from one in control group. The including of SCENAR-therapy in combined treatment of duodenal ulcer recurrent had “modulatory” impact on the condition of stomach motor function. When the stomach motor activity is initially decreased, the growth of frequency indicators of stomach motor oscillations, their average amplitude and total intensity of stomach biopotentials came to 31,4%, 75,4 % and 139,1 % conformably, and finally they’ve got normal condition. During the initial hyper kinesis, there are marked the decreasing of electrogastrography indicators half as less again (p<0,001). There are discovered the possibility of SCENAR-influence to remove the manifestations of dyskinesia, which has been proved by the increasing of symmetric (from 34% to 91%) and single modal (from 49% to 96%) variational curve amplitude (VCA)  in all the investigated groups.

During the studying the VNS condition the parasympathetic tonus of nervous system prevailed in most cases (76,3% of patients), and sympathetic one- in others (13,9%-of patients). Including the hyper vagotonia, which was evident for 43,1% of patients and hyper sympathicatonia (5,6% of patients) [1]. Vegetative reactivity (VR) for most of patients (39.3%) was unnatural; this proved the predomination parasympathetic tonus of nervous system. The redundant VR was marked at 10,7% of patients and was connected with initial sympathicatonia. There was detected the overstrain of both department of nervous system during the security of action (SA), and 68,4% of patients showed the  disfunction of balance and correlation between them. The including of SCENAR-therapy in treating of duodenal ulcer recurrent led to the normalization of not only initially unnatural but also initially redundant vegetative reactions (p<0,05), and also provided the decreasing of  heightened indicators either of clinostatic (p<0,02) or orthostatic (p<0,05) probes. Here at the background of pharmacotherapy (control) the vegetative status hasn’t change much.

Conclusions

The including of SCENAR-therapy in combined treatment during the duodenal ulcer recurrent, positively influences on clinical course and functional condition of gastro duodenal zone, stimulates reparative processes and decreases the inflammation activity of mucous coat of stomach. In mechanisms of medical influence of SCENAR-therapy, there such predominating factors as the activation of indicators of “defiance” and the impact on common mechanisms of adaptive regulation of gastro duodenal zone self-regulation [5].

Al the researches let us talk about SCENAR-therapy as the effective method of duodenal ulcer recurrent treatment, either like monotherapy or as a component in combined medicine treatment.

References

  1. E.V.Vladimirsky., I.A.Kochurova – The influence of SCENAR-therapy on the vegetative homeostasis condition for the patients with duodenal ulcer during the recurrence// Urgent questions of balneology/ material of interregional scientific-practical conference – Perm, 2004.-p. 84-88.
  2. The influence of SCENAR-effect on the intensity of lipids peroxidation/ M.G.Macletsova, Ya.Z.Grinberg, A.E.Stalbov and co-authors// SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise.-Taganrog, 2001.-I. 7.-p.37-38.
  3. L.H.Garkavi, E.B.Kvakina, T.S.Kuzmenko, A.I.Shihlyarova. Antistress reactions and activation therapy. Part I, II – Ekaterinburg: Philanthropist, 2002-2003. 336p
  4. E.V.Grigorieva. SNENAR-therapy: results and research// SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise.- Taganrog 1997. – I. 5 –p.38-42.
  5. Ya.Z.Grinberg – On substantiation of SCENAR-therapy effectiveness// SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise.- Taganrog 1997.- I.3 –p.16-22.
  6. Ya.Z.Grinberg – Effectiveness of SCENAR-therapy. Physiologic aspects// SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise.- Taganrog 1998. – I.4 –p.8-19.
  7. V.Yu.Guliaev, P.I. Shchecoldin, V.V.Chernishov – Treating with pulse low-frequency therapy// Ural medical review.-2001.-?2.-p.47-54.
  8. V.G.Zilov, K.V.Sudakov, O.I.Epstein –Elements of informative biology and medicine. – M:MGUL, 2000-p.248
  9. Application instructions for SCENAR devices (protocol ?3 (09.07.1993) and ?4 (20.11.1998) of physiotherapeutic devices commission of New Medical technique committee of Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation).
  10. I.A.Kochurova The multiple therapy of patients with duodenal ulcer using SCENAR-therapy: the abstract of thesis of candidate of medical science – Perm, 2005.-p.144
  11. M.L. Kukushkin, N.K.Hitrov The common pathology of pain (manual for doctors).- M: Medicine, 2004.-p.144
  12. P.P. Lyashedko – New approach in preventing and treating erosive-ulcer defect of stomach and duodenum of the patients with severe wounds and traumas// SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise – Taganrog, 1997.-I.3 –p.22-25.
  13. The correction method of clinical demonstration of somatic, surgery, neurological diseases by neuro-adaptive electrostimulator “SCENAR” (manual for doctors)/ V.G.Zilov, L.M.Kudaeva, A.N.Revenko and co-authors – M.,2000
  14. T.V.Muravyeva, O.S.Averianova, A.N.Dmitriev, P.A.Sarapultsev- SCENAR-stimulation in multiple therapy of chronic pancreatitis and the syndrome of irritated bowels// Ural medical review-2001.?2-p.69-71.
  15. I.S.Orlov., A.P.Pospelov – SCENAR-therapy during children’s viral hepatitis// SCENAr-therapy and SCENAR-expertise – Taganrog, 1998.-I.4 –p.50-52.
  16. V.G.Podoprigorova – The role of free radical oxidation of lipids and antioxidant systems in pathogenesis and sanogenesis of duodenal ulcer, the possibility of correction by antioxidants: the abstract of M.D. thesis – M.,1998.
  17. G.N.Ponomarenko – Electrotherapy and electro-treating – SPB: Peace and family, 1995-p.250
  18. A.N.Revenko – SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise. Part 1 – Ekaterinburg: Philanthropist, 2004.-p.408
  19. G.V.Subbotina. Experience of using the SCENAR-therapy in various forms of adult and child’s pathology// SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise – Taganrog,1999.- I.2 – p.36-40
  20. K.V.Sudakov –Reflex and functional system. – Novgorod, 1997.-p.339
  21. A.B.Trembach, G.A.Trembach – SCENAR-therapy in multiple therapy of post-surgical pain syndrome during cholelithiasis// SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise – Taganrog,2000. – I.6 – p.39-41
  22. N.N.Hazova, S.N.Saralov. The experience of using the SCENAR-therapy in multiple therapy of erosive gastroduodenitis and child’s duodenal ulcer// Nizhny Novgorod Medical Magazine -2002-?2-p.84-86
  23. M.B.Hutsishvili. S.I.Rapoport. Free-radical processes and their role in pathogenesis of some diseases of digestive apparatus (part 1)// Clinical med.-2002-?10-p.10-16
  24. N.G.Tsikalova – The using of acupuncture points in SCENAR-therapy// SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise – Taganrog, 2000 – I.6-p.82-85
  25. Ya.S.Zymmerman – The chronic gastritis and stomach ulcer (the sketches of clinical gastroenterology) – Perm: Perm state medical academy, 2000.- 256p
  26. Ya.S.Zymmerman, I.A.Kochurova, E.V.Vladimirsky – The SCENAR-therapy of duodenal ulcer: new approaches to alternative non-drug treatment// Experimental and clinical gastroenterology – 2003. ?5-p.51-55.
  27. S.A.Chebkasov – The strategy of health. The system of forward self-healing of biostructures. The problem of parasympathetic vegetative system activation// Valeology.-2000-?1-p.80-86
  28. S.A.Chebkasov, Yu.I.Bereshpolova – The central effect of SCENAR-stimulation: self-healing of the organism by activation of front hypothalamus// SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise – Taganrog, 2001, – I.7-p.15-21

 

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SCENAR in Multiple Non-drug Stress Therapy

Publication: Reflexology Journal, Issue No: 3 (7), 2005, pp. 48-51)

Authors: Minenko A., I.M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy  Department of non-drug therapies and clinical physiology

Article name: SCENAR in Multiple Non-drug Stress Therapy

Key words: SCENAR, psychiatry, stress

Summary: Research results described in the article show the effectiveness of combining non-drug therapies for treating stress disorders of various genesis. One of such combinations is SCENAR-therapy + psychotherapy (73.1% effectiveness), which is quite effective in treating stress.

SCENAR in Multiple Non-drug Stress Therapy

The problem of stress disorders is of current interest and importance nowadays and worth special attention. In recent years social-psychological situation in Russia and in the whole world – steady increase of terror acts, armed conflicts, man-made and natural disasters, high crime rate – causes great stress disorders and psychological disadaptation of people.

Different stress disorders and their management is the problem of current importance in today’s medicine. This paper describes the investigations and tests directed to study the management of stress disorders (SD) of various genesis with different combinations of non-drug therapies. The test groups included patients with SD of different genesis: troopers from the Special Police Force of the Russian Ministry of Interior, who fought on the territory of the Chechen Republic, representatives of flight professions (line pilots, navigators, flight-engineer) that took part in local war conflicts, assaulted women, officers from Federal Security Service of Russia (man and women).

To make analysis and comparison of therapy effectiveness easier, patients with different genesis were randomly divided into subgroups considering the therapies used.  Within the subgroup patients had only different non-drug therapies. It should be noted that psychotherapeutic sessions were as obligatory therapy in all the subgroups (both treatment and control).

RESEARCH AIM

Develop the universal scheme of non-drug therapy for treating consequences of stress disorders (SD) of various genesis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Clinical-diagnostic estimation of psychopathological phenomena was based on the international statistical classification of diseases, traumas and causes of death of the 10th review (ICD-10, paragraph F 43), adapted to be used in Russia and DSM-III.

Following the research aim and trying to fulfill the tasks set we selected the patients that had stress disorders of various genesis to form the test groups:

  • 137 troopers from the Special Police Force of the Russian Ministry of Interior, who fought on the territory of the Chechen Republic (men, age 18-37)
  • 124 representatives of flight professions (line pilots, navigators, flight-engineers) that took part in local war conflicts (men, age 25-44)
  • 80 officers from the Federal Security Service of Russia (32 men, age 22-51, 48 women, age 25-56).
  • 74 assaulted women (age 14-62)

Studying personality, mental and somatic state of the patients we used some psychodiagnostic tests, as well as conducted clinical dialogue with them. The main tests were: standard method of character research, Lushcher’s color selection test, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). In addition to the abovementioned methods for estimating treatment effectiveness we also used “well-being, activity, spirit” method.

We also used a complex of vegetative indices: heart and respiratory rate, systolic pressure and diasystolic pressure.

After the stress myofascial trigger points, both active and passive, are found when palpating. In modern literature myofascial trigger points are considered to be hypersensitive areas in the indurated skeletal muscle cord or fascia. Active trigger point is always painful. It lies in the palpated burst of muscle fibers and prevents muscle sprain. Trigger points can also signify the progression of reflected pain in the areas essential for the affected muscle. Latent trigger points cause pain only when palpating – a patient flinches every time the trigger point is palpated. Every muscle has individual myofascial pain syndrome with a certain picture of pain reflection. Usually a patient remembers clearly the movement or action that caused pain. The affected muscles have a limited range of motions. Clinical manifestations of myofascial syndrome were counted numerically according to the indicator of myofascial syndrome (IMS) (R.A. Yakupov, 2001):

Where

I – number of myofascial trigger points for one muscle,

N – number of affected muscles,

MP – myofascial painfullness (0-3 points),

RMP – reflected MP (0-3 points),

MPD – MP duration (0-3 points),

MTR – muscle trophic (0-3 points),

MT – muscle tension (0-3 points).

According to the research aim clinical-experimental research was done in several stages considering the set algorithm of investigation and rehabilitation of patients that have suffered from stress disorders of various genesis.

1 stage – psycho-physiological investigation aimed at defining people that need functional correction of well-being, which was temporary lost because of stress disorder

2 stage – clinical-laboratory research at treatment and clinical-physiological departments

3 stage – formation of clinical-rehabilitation groups

4 stage – rehabilitation

5 stage – estimation of rehabilitation effectiveness

Examination complex was done three times:

  • define individual-typological features, estimate background state and workout treatment-rehabilitation therapy
  • define adequacy and in-time correction of the treatment done at 11-12 day
  • evaluate therapy effectiveness

Most common complaints at the examination:

  1. Hyperexastibility – 404 patients (97.3%)
  2. Decrease in mental and physical performance – 401 patients (96.6%)
  3. Psychosomatic manifestations: BP variations, headaches, gastralgia, myalgia and cardialgia –396 people (95.4%)
  4. Hyperirritability – 378 people (91.1%)
  5. Decrease in natural instincts – 352 people (84.8%)
  6. Insomnia – 378 people (91.1%)
  7. Reminiscences – 283 people (68.2%)
  8. Meteorolability – 270 people (65%)
  9. Senestopathy – 253 people (60.9%)
  10. Hyperhidrosis – 239 people (57.6%)
  11. Hyperawareness – 228 people (54.9%)
  12. Impaired thermoregulation – 211 people (50.8%)

To make analysis and comparison of therapy effectiveness easier, patients with different genesis were randomly divided into subgroups considering the therapies used.  Each group was divided into 3-5 subgroups, 24-28 patients in each; one of the subgroups in each group was control. Within the subgroup patients had only different non-drug therapies. It should be noted that psychotherapeutic sessions were as obligatory therapy in all the subgroups (both treatment and control).

The following therapies were used as non-dug multiple treatment:

  • homeopathic biopuncture
  • acupuncture
  • manual therapy
  • constitutional homeopathy
  • psychotherapy
  • SCENAR-therapy

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Research results showed that women who were raped are mostly subjected to stress disorders (4 group – 91.4%).

The next group was women from Federal Security Service of Russia, whose professional activity is connected with constant physical and emotional overexertion and special duty assignments (3 group – 64.0%, 48 patients out of 75 examined).

Men from the 3rd group turned out to be less subjected to SD than women – 32.7%(32 patients out of 86 examined).

Stress disorders among troopers from the Special Police Force of the Russian Ministry of Interior (1 group), who fought on the territory of the Chechen Republic, were observed in 54.8%.

The results of our research showed that representatives of flight professions are mostly resistant to stress (2 group) – 36.5% (124 patients out of 340 examined).

After non-drug therapy patients had certain improvements of their state: decrease in fatigue and irritancy levels, as well as reminiscence, meteorolability and inner impaction, their sleep normalized and frequency of AD oscillations decreased, headaches went away, gastralgia, myalgia and cardialgia absolutely relieved, level of natural instincts also decreased – and all that signed that significant changes in the clinical picture have been achieved.

According to before-treatment-analyses of tetrapolar rheography only 47% patients had hyperkinetic hemodynamic type, 25% had eukynetic type, 28% had hypokynetic type.

After the sessions of homeopathic biopuncture combined with EEG-biofeedback distribution of prevailing homeopathic types have changed: 25% had hyperkynetic type, 56% had eukynetic type, 19% had hypokynetic type.

Non-drug therapy stimulated significant increase of alpha-rhythm intensity (from 45.93% up to 61.26%). That signs that psycho-emotional state of patients has improved and their beta rhythm has decreased (from 36.54% to 27.62%).

Moreover, rehabilitation sessions improved the mental state of the patients with stress disorders. We have studied the personality of all the patients and manifested three average types of personalities that changed after non-drug therapy for SD. After-treatment analyses of personality showed the decrease in height of the average profile practically in all the scales (mostly in 1,2,7 scales). Positive dynamics was observed in all the groups and that signs positive effects of non-drug therapies in treating SD of various genesis, without any doubts that is psychologically important.

In all the tested groups Lushcher’s test and “well-being, activity, spirit” method showed the tendency to stabilization of emotional tolerance, decrease in stress level, performance capability, significant increase in activity indices (of 34.5%), well-being (35.7%), spirit (of 37.8%).

The most effective non-drug therapies were defined by comparing clinical effectiveness of different schemes for treating stress disorders of various genesis:

  • homeopathic biopuncture + psychotherapy (94.7% effectiveness)
  • biofeedback therapy + psychotherapy (81.3% effectiveness)
  • constitutional homeopathy + psychotherapy (78.9% effectiveness)
  • SCENAR-therapy + psychotherapy (73/1% effectiveness)
  • manual therapy + psychotherapy (65.8% effectiveness)

The most significant changes in “well-being, activity, spirit” method, indicator of myofascial syndome and reduction of complaints were observed in the subgroups where patients were treated with homeopathic biopuncture.

Dynamics of complaints under the influence of homeopathic biopuncture is shown on the graph.

The combination of homeopathic biopuncture and psychotherapy in all the tested groups (effectiveness up to 94.7%) had a very high effect on the patients and that was the reason to consider it as a universal scheme for correcting health in SD of various genesis.

The method technique is the following: clinically actual trigger points that lie in the interested myofascial structures are manifested when palpating.

Kinetic investigation allows to define the nucleolus 1.5-3mm in diameter in the thickness of the local tensed area. The pain inside the nucleolus is severe, while in some millimeters from its borders it relieves significantly.

The TP found when palpating is fixed between a thumb and a finger and needle is syringed inside. Target accuracy is controlled by subjective feelings of a patient. The doctor searches for the most effective puncture point by moving the needle at different angle and with different depth till the patient feels arching, acute pain or burning. These feelings are obligatory and sign that the needle is very close to the nerve-ending. After that 2ml of homeopathic medicine (Cerebrum, Ovarium and Testis compositum depending on the stimulation zone) are injected inside the TP. Treatment session contribute to pain relief and muscle relaxation and there is no need to stimulate all the TP found. The doctor should only inactivate TP in the most easy-to-get extero- and  proprioceptive reflexogenic zones (for example: upper arm superficies, lumbus and interscapular region, posterior surface of a lower leg, lower-superficial of the hip, upper supperficial quadrant of the buttock and etc). In the picture you can see the most common points for injecting homeopathic medicine.

The SCENAR-technique was the following: stimulation of the cervical zone giving special attention to “sticking” zones, hyperpainful zones and zones that differ from the rest of the skin (before and after stimulation). These zones (asymmetries) were stimulated additionally (about 1 min) and total stimulation time was 20 min in average.

CONCLUSIONS

Research results showed that the combinations of non-drug therapies were effective when treating consequences of SD of various genesis (catamnesis from 1 till 3 years).

Therapies for treating myofascial pain syndromes inactivating painful trigger points by injecting homeopathic medicines inside them is available for everyone as it doesn’t require special medicine skills and therapy course numbers 5-7 sessions.

SCENAR-therapy is easy-to-apply, available for everyone, non-invasive and cost-effective. In perspective the effectiveness of SCENAR-therapy for treating stress disorders can be significantly improved, but that requires further investigations.

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SCENAR – One Biophysical Option in Fatigue

Abstracts of the 17th MASCC International Symposium

Support Care Cancer (2005) 13: 401–483 DOI 10.1007/s00520-005-0829-0

 

11-073
SCENAR – One Biophysical Option in Fatigue.

Boris Zaidiner1, Ilia Baranovsky2, Nicolay Lyan 3. 1 Cancer Hospital, 2Medical Unit “Zdorovye”, 3Medical Unit “Biocar”.

While studying fatigue’s biophysical peculiarities they were paid less attention than other aspects. Meanwhile such information could add a lot to therapeutic programs. We present data on electrophysiologic characteristics of some acupuncture meridians in patients (pts) with fatigue related to illness and/or treatment. 46 pts (women 25, men 21, mean age 54.6 ± 3.3 years, range 39–79 years) with morphologically proved malignancies of various nosological forms were enrolled after informed consent. The cutaneous electroconductivity was measured in representative points on routine Nakatani method with the device RISTA on SCENAR-technology presented in our previous works (Zaidiner, 1999; Zaidiner, Grinberg, Vorozheikina, 2003).

In 41 of 46 pts (89.1%) significant (p < 0.05) decrease of activity scores on digestory and lung (L, LI, SI) meridians were revealed; the same was with P-meridian which allocates to cerebral autonomic functions. The scores on these meridians didn’t exceed 20 whereas in healthy people they’re above 40… 50. 37 of 41 pts had severely (p < 0.00l) decreased K-meridian scores which were <15. “Physiologic range” was also lower than this level of healthy man. Chinese acupuncture concepts attribute such decrease to the suppression of body’s nutritive function provided with digestive organs and lungs. The body internal energy resources (which are governed with kidneys) also run out; besides there’re disorders in immunoendocrine status regulated by the cerebral centers. “Physiologic range” decrease as illustration of cancer fatigue summarizes these
disorders. We found the differences with chronic fatigue syndrome: its “physiologic range” is on the level of 30…50 and score changes concern Sp- and, to smaller degree, P-meridians. Our results confirm fatigue’s energetic exhaustion and permit acupuncture formularies to be suggested for the supplemental therapy. Such suggestions will be tested in accordance with evidence-based medicine rules.

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Multifactor mechanism of SCENAR-analgesia

Publication: Reflexology Journal, Issue No: 3 (7), 2005 Moscow, Russia

Authors: A.V. Tarakanov, E.G. Los

Department of emergency at Faculty of Qualification Improvement and Professional Training of Specialists at State Medical University of Rostov

Multifactor mechanism of SCENAR-analgesia

Summary:

The complex effect of SCENAR-therapy is demonstrated in situations of emergency, when various conditions associated by acute pain are treated. The result of monotherapy of pains: proved analgesic effect at traumas (n=20, 60%); analgesia against a background of normalized function of the system of organs at stenocardia (n=26, 66%) and hypertensive crises (n=153, 88-91% for cephalgia, and cardialgia respectively).

The issue of protecting patients against pains has an enormous humanistic importance. Pain is a signal of danger, a symptom of many diseases, main reason for patients to suffer, basic pathophysiologic factor of developing shock.

When a patient faces aversive factors of ambience, adaptive mechanisms start so that the organism survives in new conditions. Activation of endogenous antinocieption system is one of these general biologic mechanisms. It is proved that realization of endogenous antionociception is performed through opiate and non-opiate systems of brain. Mechanisms of antinociception have been subject of numerous comprehensive works, including acupuncture, electropuncture, and transcutaneous neurostimulation. [2,3,8,11]

It is known that pharmaceutical methods of analgesia are imitation of the functions of endogenous system to protect against pain. They are important when performing mass analgesia. Starting the endogenous antinociception system is optimal when methods of reflexotherapy are used, and this method is more physiologic. The complexity of the methods, their invasiveness, impossibility to be used in extreme circumstances, lack of reliable and inexpensive equipment, and insufficiency of trained specialists are the factors that obstruct mass introduction of reflexological methods of analgesia.

Methods of transcutaneous bioregulated low-frequency impulsive electrotherapy have been used recently for non-pharmaceutical treatment [5,6,7], particularly – self-controlled energy neuroadaptive regulator (SCENAR). This method is based on the effect of bipolar impulsive points of low frequency without constant component. Characteristics which distinguish SCENAR among electric equipment for transcutaneous stimulation: 1) optimal form oh the impulse and the force of the effect; 2) the body almost does not have to adapt to SCENAR impact due to biotechnological feed-back; 3) non-damaging mode of impact; 4) high level abruption of the front of the affecting signal with neutralization of the accommodation effect; 5) many researches have been performed to examine this method of treatment; 6) during the treatment an expert evaluation of the dermal condition can be used to optimize the area of impact; 7) optimal construction of the appliance enables it to work in various conditions [6, 7].

Applying SCENAR-therapy is an issue of huge interest due to its availability, rapid positive effect, simplicity of treatment and steady result.

TASKS OF THE RESEARCH

Examining possibilities to perform SCENAR-therapy at various pathological processes accompanied by acute pain in conditions of emergency.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Mobilizing adaptive systems of the organism using SCENAR in conditions of acute damage of their functions and analgesic effect were the reason to use the appliance in emergency situations.  More than 40 doctors of emergency departments in 13 towns of district of Rostov, Stavropol, Nizhni Novgorod and Adigeia took part in this research. More than 500 patients were helped. The coordination of clinical tests according to special developed map was performed by Emergency department of Faculty of qualification improvement of State Medical University of Rostov and the department of clinical tests of “RITM” Development Bureau, town of Taganrog. Patients with acute pain at three different pathological processes were selected from the database: 1) traumatic injuries of limbs, soft tissue injuries (n=20); 2) steady stenocardia (n=26); 3) hyper-intensive crises (n=153).

SCENAR-therapy was performed according to instructions [12], as dermal areas with located  “anti-pain” points were included; if needed methods of general treatment can be added: “three paths on the backbone and six points on the face” and “ collar area, forehead, adrenals”. If there was no possibility to affect the injured organ, “work” with the appliance was performed on symmetric areas. The kin was treated using CHENS-SCENAR appliances without digital methods in mode F1. The therapeutic procedure was performed only once by an emergency department doctor, as the duration of the procedure was 5-30 minutes long, depending on the effect. When the analgesia was ineffective, the doctor could inject analgesic medicine. To evaluate the effect of the analgesia in conditions of emergency, a visual analog scale (VAS) was used, where 0cm = lack of pain, 10cm = maximum pain.

The use of itineraries subject to the method “three paths” of the backbone and six points of the face was performed on the grounds of the following: when processing path 2 and 3, Shu-points of the back are included in the area of the impact of SCENAR (points of consent)[4, 10, 11], which are located on the urethra. The itinerary of path 1 is a non-pair rear middle meridian. When areas containing points VG1-VG4 are processed a therapeutic effect is marked on this channel at nervous system diseases, intestinal diseases, diseases of the urino-genital system. When areas containing points VG5-VG8 are processed a therapeutic effect is marked on this channel at nervous system diseases, diseases of gastric and intestinal system. The area of points from VG9 to VG14  – nervous system disorders, pulmonary diseases, fever.

Processing six points on the face enables to input information through all the three ramifications of the trigeminus nerve. On the other hand biologically active points of the channels are located in these areas. At least point V2 of the urethra, points E2 and E3 of the gastric channel and G120 of the large intestine, and point E4 of the gastric channel are included in the area of impact of SCENAR.

The method “collar, forehead, adrenals” is also related to the areas of general treatment. The use of itineraries in this method is performed due to largely represented reflexogenic areas and biologically active points as the experience of SCENAR-therapy shows [5, 12]. When the indicated itineraries are processed and when the dermal areas are processed “according to instructions”, the appliance may stick. In this case the electrode is not unstuck from the skin but is held on it until further movement becomes possible. If the appliance does not stick, then other kinds of so-called asymmetry can appear (hyperimia, change of the characteristics of the sound, different sensibility etc.). These dermal areas are processed additionally until initial characteristics are changed.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  1. Pain at traumas. Analgesia with the use of SCENAR was performed at small and medium traumas: lower limbs fracture (n=5), injuries of soft tissues – limbs, thorax, without damaging respiratory functions (n=9), I and II degree burns of face and abdominal wall (n=2). Cut wounds and bites (n=4). There were nine men and 11 women with age from 11 to 82 (average age – 40.7±3.9). The patients were treated using general means of treatment: splinting, immobilization, non-adhesive bandages in cases of burn etc. The evaluation of the pain was performed using VAS before the analgesia with SCENAR, immediately after the procedure, and in the 10th and 20th minute. In the same periods of time other complaints and symptoms were defined, as well as the parameters of hemodynamics. The data is shown on fig.1.

 

Fig.1. A – Dynamics of the analgesic effect of SCENAR during therapy of

traumatic pains according  to VAS.

B – Dynamics of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse frequency of patients with traumatic pains. Reliability referring to data before SCENAR: * – P < 0.05; ***- P < 0.001;

A distinct reliable analgesic effect developed immediately after the procedure, almost without further increase by the 20th minute. Observations showed that the analgesic effect increases by the 50th – 60th minute. Because the emergency staff cannot follow the efficiency of the procedure for a long period of time, in several cases the doctor made the decision to inject additionally non-opiate analgesic medicine (analgine, ketorolac or ketonal). Only 8 out of 20 patients were injected analgesic medicines. Natural skepticism and caution should be noticed when doctors tested the new method.

We regard as an important factor the steadiness of the values of blood pressure. Reliable decrease of the average frequency of cardiac contractions from 85 to 81 beats per minute indirectly shows sympathetic tonus. Reliable change of respiratory frequency was not noticed and it was within normal limits. Decrease of other symptoms and complaints was noticed along with the analgesic effect, such as dizziness, nausea, excitedness and sensation of inhibition.

Independent analgesic effect developing on the background of steady parameters of blood pressure end decreasing of symptoms accompanying the traumas is noticed during the process of analgesia using SCENAR for patients with small and medium traumas.

  1. Pain at steady stenocardia tension of I-III functional class.

26 patients with ischemic cardiac disease, crises of pain at steady tension stenocardia of different functional classes were treated with SCENAR, as the patients had previous idiosyncrasy to nitrates or lack of efficiency of the nitrates. There were 14 men (average age – 63,1,7±2,5 years old), 12 women (average age  – 68.4±3.7 years old). 7 patients had arterial hypertonia as accompanying disease, and 3 of them had osteohondrosis of the backbone. This category of patients was additionally treated with SCENAR as the dermal area of the pericardial channel was processed in the lower part of right forearm and the painful area of skin on the thorax.

Fig.2. A – Dynamics of the complete analgesic effect and number of residual

pains (%) during analgesia of patients with attacks of stenocardia.

B – Dynamics of analgesia of patients with residual pains during

SCENAR-therapy, according to VAS. Reliability referring to SCENAR data: * – P < 0.05; ** – P < 0.02; *** – P < 0.001.

As can be seen in fig.2 (A) immediately after SCENAR-treatment the pain completely disappeared for 46 % of the patients and for 65% of the patients – 20 minutes later. 35% of the patients felt residual pain in the 20th minute of the treatment, but the intensity of the pain was much less, which can be seen in fig 2 (B). These patients, among whom there were mainly patients with accompanying diseases, were offered additional therapy with included symptomatic medicines and non-opiate analgesics. Changes of parameters of blood pressure and pulse statistically did not differ for the category of patients with additional treatment and patients with SCENAR-therapy.

This way, analgesia using SCENAR for algic crises at steady tension stenocardia causes sufficient independent analgesic effect, which does not depend on parameters of general pressure. The extent of its correlation with coronary varicose and the endogenous mechanisms which SCENAR starts in order to stop the pain, can be defined in hospital conditions and additional tests.

  1. Cardialgia and cephalgia at hypertensive crises.

During SCENAR-therapy for patients with neurovegetative form of hypertensive crises normalization of parameters of blood pressure was aimed, not only analgesic effect. A total of 153 patients were helped at their homes on emergency call. To analyze the analgesic effect we divided the patients into 2 groups: with cephalgia (n=137, which forms 90% of the patients; among them 71 patients – 52% had cardialgia); separately data of patients with cardialgia were analyzed (n=78, which is 51% of the patients). Patients of this category were treated by SCENAR,  as the skin was processed in the collar area, area of pericardial channel, in the lower part of the right forearm, and dermal projections of maximal pain.

Fig.3. A – Dynamics of the complete analgesic effect and number of residual pains (%) during analgesia of patients with cardialgia at hypertensive crisis.

B – Dynamics of analgesia of patients with residual pains during SCENAR-therapy, according to VAS. Reliability referring to SCENAR data: * – P < 0.05; ** – P < 0.02; *** – P < 0.001.

In fig. 3 can be seen that immediately after the procedure cardiac pains disappeared for 61% of the patients, and for 91% by the 30th minute. Nevertheless, residual painful sensations were registered by the 30th minute only for 9% of the patients. Their extent was much lower, as at stenocardia, which could be seen during evaluation using visual analog scale (fig. 3 B). This category of patients at times needed an additional injection of non-opiate analgesic.

In fig.4, the effect of the appliance can be seen for cephalgia and hypertensive crises at pre-hospital stage of treatment. Fig.4 A shows reliable and gradual elimination of pain. After the procedure the headache disappeared for 43%, and for 88% of patients  – by the 30th minute.

Residual pains by the 30th minute were registered only for 12% of the patients. Their extent, according to VAS, was much lower than before the procedure (fig.4 B). Unidirectional elimination of pain in cardiac area and headaches was noticed during elimination of hypertensive crisis. We analyzed the changes of parameters of blood pressure during SCENAR-therapy.

Some patients took hypotensive medicines before the emergency staff arrived, which dramatically changes the efficiency of SCENAR. Naturally there was certain skepticism: was it SCENAR that affected or was it previously taken medicines?

Fig.4. A – Dynamics of the complete analgesic effect and number of residual pains (%) during analgesia of patients with cephalgia at hypertensive crisis.

B – Dynamics of analgesia of patients with residual pains during SCENAR-therapy, according to VAS. Reliability referring to SCENAR data: * – P < 0.05; ** – P < 0.02; *** – P < 0.001.

This is why we divided all the patients into 2 groups: ones who took medicines and ones who did not took medicines before they called the emergency and were treated with SCENAR. Among the patients who had taken hypotensive medicines before the emergency arrived (calcium antagonists, ?-adrenoblockers, APF inhibitors etc) 30-90 minutes before that without any effect there were 80 people (58 women, 22 men; average age – 61.1±4.9 years old). The group of patients who did not take medicines before calling the emergency contained 73 people  (52 women, 21 men; average age – 63.1±3.5 years old). The results are shown in fig.5.

As can be seen in the left part of the figure, the parameters of blood pressure for both groups did not differ before and after SCENAR-treatment, on the background of general decrease of blood pressure. 30 minutes before the end of the procedure the systolic blood pressure decreased 11-16% , diastolic – 11-9%. This speed of decrease of blood pressure in the first 30 minutes is effective as cardialgia and cephalgia are eliminated it is safe for all ages. A typical effect of the SCENAR-therapy is the primary elimination of the complaint of the symptom and then normalization of objective parameters. Vegetative corrective effect of SCENAR–therapy should be noticed as hyperhydrosis, nausea, vomiting and excitedness is eliminated. Further observation of some patients and the experience of elimination crises in hospital conditions show that average blood pressure decreases 15-25% within 1 hour, which does not lead to ischemia of targeted organs. The reliable decrease of frequency of cardiac contractions with 9% could be noticed when eliminating crises without previous use of medicines (fig.5b)

Fig.5. A – Dynamics of parameters of blood pressure during SCENAR-therapy of hypertensive crises  in the group of patients who had taken and who had not taken hypotensive medicines before the emergency staff arrived.

B –  Dynamics of frequency of cardiac contractions in the same groups. Reliability referring to the data before SCENAR: * – P < 0.05

Fig.6. Dynamics of correlation coefficient depending on the decrease of systolic blood pressure and decrease of painful sensibility at cephalgia and cardialgia, according to VAS.

ing the process of analgesia the analgesic effect develops independently for patients with traumas, then during attack of pain at steady stenocardia and particularly hypertensive crises, the analgesia probably depends mostly on recovering of functions and decrease of ischemia: the decrease of system blood circulation and normalization of regional blood circulation including the coronary one.

We analyzed the dynamics of correlation coefficient depending on the decrease of systolic blood pressure and the extent of headache and cardiac ache, according to visual analog scale. The data is represented in fig.6. As can be seen in this figure the correlation coefficient increases simultaneously with the decrease of the systolic blood pressure and decrease of values of extent of cardialgia and cephalgia, according to VAS. If in the beginning of the crisis the extent of the pain did not depend on the values of blood pressure, then SCENAR-therapy led to increase of the correlation to 0.41 and 0.48. Similar dynamics of close relation and its lack in the beginning of the crisis probably shows simultaneously developing effects of SCENAR: analgesic effect and the effect, which normalizes the functional system of blood pressure regulation. This way, the elimination of neurovegetative form of hypertensive crises using SCENAR regardless of preliminary therapy leads to gradual decrease of parameters of blood pressure and frequency of cardiac contractions. Distinct analgesic effect of cephalgia and cardialgia is noticed, which probably has a mixed nature.

During the process of elimination of acute pain with different origins, three elements should be present in the algorithm: possible elimination of reason causing pain; affecting the sensation of pain  – perception; possible prophylactics of pathophysiological damages, which pain causes or will cause.

As the experience of work with SCENAR shows, during the treatment of acute and chronic painful syndromes, the data presented in this article show the multicompoundness of the suggested therapy. Non-medical method of elimination of acute pain starts the endogenous antinociception and other mechanisms of recovering damaged functional systems. The analysis of the data obtained in traumatology and cardiology shows that the share of perceptual component of SCENAR analgesia is different depending on nosology, the level and the volume of the damage. It is not reasonable to rely on only one single method of analgesia and it is also dangerous for the patient, especially in case of emergency.

Undoubtedly, the morphologic substrate of the analgesic effect of SCENAR-therapy are the antinociceptional systems of brain, started from the different areas of skin. SCENAR works with the biologically active points, with their accumulation and the surrounding tissues – this a zonal appliance. Due to its technical solution, it “finds” these points independently. As shown for acupuncture analgesia [8], in opioidergic, serotoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, gamkergic and possibly other mechanisms take part in its realization.

Some authors regard the transcutaneous electro-stimulation as the most accessible and the simplest “hyperstimulation analgesia” to be realized. If we proceed from the theory of Melzack and Wall (1965) the activity in the thin non-myelinized C-fibers located in the jelly substance of the rear horns of the spinal cord “opens the gates” to the further pass of nervous impulses bearing the information of pain. The role of the thick fibers consists in the ability to “close the gates”. One of the hypotheses of the analgesic effect of transcutaneous neurostimulation consists of the fact that the procedure leads to activation of thick myelinic fibers with subsequent “locking the painful entrance”. The analgesic effect during the so-called dynamic neurostimulation is proved to be naloxone-dependent [9].

Using almost the same methods of SCENAR-therapy and taking under consideration the principles of heir application [5,6,12], we obtained unidirectional results: analgesic effect and final positive sanogenic result connected with normalization of the changed functional system. Taking under consideration the limited volume of such a publication we can mention that similar unidirectional results were obtained during the process of therapy of acute myocardial infarction, burns, bronchial asthma of adults and infants etc.

The simplicity of use of SCENAR allows us to recommend the use of this kind of analgesia in any conditions and if needed, by people without medical education.

CONCLUSIONS

  1. The SCENAR-therapy (self-controlled, energy neuro-adaptive regulator) is an effective, safe and multifactor non-pharmaceutical method of analgesia during treatment of different conditions accompanied by acute pain in cases of emergency.
  2. During the process of analgesia using SCENAR the patients with small and medium trauma (n=20), an independent analgesic effect is noticed (60%) developing on the background of steady parameters of blood pressure and decrease the symptoms accompanying traumas.
  3. The analgesia of algic attacks at ischemic disease and steady tension stenocardia (n=26) using SCENAR, causes a sufficient independent analgesic effect (66%), which does not depend on the parameters of general pressure.
  4. The elimination of neurovegetative form of hypertensive crises (n=153) using SCENAR, regardless of preliminary medical therapy leads to gradual reliable decrease of the frequency of cardiac contractions and decrease the parameters of blood pressure by the 2oth minute after the procedure; by the 30th minute a distinct analgesia of cephalgia and cardialgia is noticed (88-91% respectively).

Bibliography: 

  1. Abakyan G.N. Reflexotherapy of nervous diseases system. M., 1999. – 297p.
  2. Barashkov G.N. Reflexotherapy of pain. – ?.: NCM “Universimed”publishing house “TM – OKO”, 1995. – 263?.
  3. Vasilenko A.M. Acupuncture and reflexology: the evolution of methodology and metatheory. – Taganrog. 1998. – P. 110.
  4. Vogralik VG, Vogalik MV Acupuncture. Fundamentals of traditional eastern reflexodiagnostics and puncture adaptive-energizing therapy: Qi-gun. – M.: GOU VUNMTS of the Russian Federation, 2001. – P. 33.
  5. Gorfinkel Yu.V. – Theoretical and practical basis for increasing the effectiveness of SCENAR-therapy. In the collection of articles “SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise”, issue 2, Taganrog, 1999. – P. 16-18
  6. Grinberg Ya.Z. To the question on the basis of the effectiveness of SCENAR-therapy / SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR expertise. – Taganrog 1997. – Issue 3. – P.16-22.7.
  7. Grinberg Ya.Z. The concept of electrotherapy / SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR- expertise. – Taganrog, 1999. – issue 5 – P.16-138.
  8. Ignatov Yu.D., Kachan AT, Vasilyev Yu.N. Acupuncture analgesia: Experimentally-clinical aspects. L.Meditsina, 1990. – P. 256.9.
  9. Kukushkin ML, Meizerov EE, Grafova V.N. and others. Peculiarities of development of analgesic effect in transdermal dynamic electroneurostimulation // Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. – 2003. – ?3. – P.265-267
  10. Luvsan Gaava. Essays on the method of oriental reflexotherapy. Novosibirsk: Science, 1991. – P. 432.
  11. Machareth EL, Korkushko A.O. The fundamentals of electro and acupuncture – Kiev: Zdorovya, 1993. – P.391.
  12. AN Revenko, AV Tarakanov. and others. Instructions for the use of percutaneous electroneurostimulant with bio-inverse communication of individually-dosed effect on the reflex zones. CHENS-SCENAR. – Taganrog, 2004. P. 70.

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The Influence of a Single Session Application of the Medical Blanket (OLM-01) On the Measurement of Free Radical Processes in the Blood

The Influence of a Single Session Application of the Medical Blanket (OLM-01) On the Measurement of Free Radical Processes in the Blood

Publication: SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise: Collection of
articles, Issue 9-10, Taganrog, 2004, p. 155-162
Authors: Tarakanov A.V., Klimova L.V., Milutina N.P., Datchenko A.A.
Rostov-on-Don, Taganrog

Summary: The purpose of this research is to find out of a healing blanket (OLM-01) application effect on free-radical peroxidation of lipids (FRPL) processes and activity of humoral and cellular (on red cell model) links antioxidant system (??S). Authors expert changes of some homeostasis indicators at apparently healthy patients after blanket single application (I group) and its placebo (II group). The result is that there is the tendency to free-radical processes activation and lipid peroxidation during reducing activity tendency of a catalase and activity increase hepatocuprein in blood plasma even after single procedure.

 

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ADVANTAGES OF SCENAR-THERAPY IN TREATING CHRONIC ADNEXITIS

Publication: SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise. Issue 9-10, Taganrog, 2004. Collection of Articles.

Authors: J. N. Chernov, A.P. Balanovsky, S.V. Svirko, A.V. Chernov, I.S. Chernova, G.T. Kairov Tomsk

Article name: ADVANTAGES OF SCENAR-THERAPY IN TREATING CHRONIC ADNEXITIS

It is known that treating acute adnexitis (AA) untimely and (or) inadequate causes frequent chronization of inflammation in a small pelvis. A chronic process [1] is characterized by forming resistance to the antibacterial therapy done [2], lingering disease period with frequent relapses causing (in some cases) tubo-ovarian abscess, pelvic aches, adhesive process in small pelvic, violating the menstrual function and increasing the risk of abdominal pregnancy and sterility [3].

The literature says that complex approach using great number of medications influencing all pathogenetic units of inflammation is necessary for successful treatment of chronic adnexitis (CA) [1-4].

Antibiotics with broad spectrum, immunocorrectors (metiluracil, pentoxyl, lycopid, neovir, cycloferon, viferon and kipferon suppository), nonsteroid antiphlogistic medications, protein-degrading enzymes, medications improving microcirculation, antioxidants, vitamins, antimicotic medications, zubiotics (bifidumbakterin, laktobakterin, hilak-forte), oral contraceptives are used in treating CA. Besides, physiotherapy and efferent therapy (plasmapheresis, autovenous uv blood radiation, laser) are also included into the treatment course.

Such treatment lasts several weeks. A patient stays in the hospital about 10 days and then completes the treatment in the antenatal clinic; so, she must ‘stick’ to the patient care institution. In such a situation she often has to choose what is more important – health or family and work. There is no secret that sick lists are either not repaid, or paid only partially. Thus, not every woman can afford a full treatment course and often breaks it off after a minimal improvement, and that causes frequent exacerbations and complications.

The second considerable drawback of a traditional drug therapy is consequences after receiving such a considerable amount of medications. It should be kept in mind that there are no ‘health-giving’ medications. Each medication can cause side effects and complications, trying to stop them may cause including additional medications into a scheme of treatment. And using SCENAR-therapy in treating CA a patient does not have all the above disadvantages.

It is not necessary to enumerate principles, effects and opportunities of SCENAR-therapy in this article. They are thoroughly observed in the lectures deliver at courses and seminars, as well as in the collection of articles SCENAR-therapy and

SCENAR-expertise [5]. It is more important to mention that this method allows to individualize therapies for each concrete patient and enables a doctor to work with the whole patient’s body.

The technology of SCENAR-therapy provides that al the treatment is paid, but in our hospital conditions the course costs 1500 rubles, while traditional treatment costs 4000 rubles according to the information in different publications.

We have done a comparative analysis of the economical expediency of traditional medical treatment of CA and SCENAR-97,4 monotherapy in the hynecological department of the first maternity hospital in Tomsk. Control group consisted of 60 women (average age – 27 years). Main group consisted of 30 women who underwent SCENAR-therapy according to the instruction and in addition according to the methods obtained at SCENAR-therapy courses. Continued and individually dosed modes were used for stimulation [5]. The control group consisted of 30 patients treated traditionally [1-4]. Average duration of staying in the hospital after medical treatment was 10 days, after monotherapy with SCENAR-97,4 – about 3 days. Later on patients underwent an outpatient SCENAR-therapy due to the improvement of their general state.

The course lasted 7 days on average. All patients undergone SCENAR-therapy mentioned its comfortable conditions (they were relieved from painful nonexpendable injections) and treatment regimen. There were no allergic reactions and other complications in this group. General hospital and outpatient course of treatment normally takes 17-30 days. At that. 3 patients had to change an antibiotic, 1 patient had a reaction to metronidazole and 2 patients developed an allergic reaction to vitamins of the group B.

Thus, using SCENAR-97,4 monotherapy in treating chronic adnexitis allows to reduce considerably patients’ stay in the hospital. It completely excludes the development of allergic reactions and cuts treatment expenses.

References
1. V.I. Krasnopolsky, S.N. Byanova, N.A. Shchukina. Purulent inflammatory disease uterine appendages – ?., 1998.
2. G.B. Beznoshchenko. Nonsurgical gynecology – ?., 2001.
3. K.I. Malevich, P.S. Rusakevich. Treating and rehabilitating in genecology – Minsk, 1994.
4. I.S. Sidorova, N.A. Scheschukova, E.I. Borovlova. Treatment guides for chronic inflammatory process of uterine appendages (Moscow)
5. SCENAR-therapy and SCENAR-expertise. Taganrog. Collection of Articles.