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SCENAR-therapy effect on the state of the blood plasma redox balance in patients with organ ischemic injury

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Reflexology. – 2005 – N3(7). – pp. 37-42.

SCENAR-therapy effect on the state of the blood plasma redox balance in patients with organ ischemic injury

L.V.Klimova, A.V.Tarakanov, A.V. Kartasheva, N.N.Usalyova

Emergency Department, Rostov State Medical University (Rostov-on-Don)
Clinical Trials Department, RITM OKB ZAO (Taganrog)
Emergency Hospital N2 (Rostov-on-Don)

Ischemia and postischemic disorders will always be of current importance in medicine. A large group of diseases, where disturbed circulation or no circulation in the organ or tissue is  one of the main pathogenic trigger, includes such severe diseases as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and acute renal failure (ARF) caused compression injury [1,7].

Ischemia is the trigger element for a number of processes that inhibit the cell functionality at first stages thus helping them to survive in sudden oxygen deficiency. With the tissue reperfusion – restoration of the blood flow – cell injury may continue because of so called oxygen paradox caused by increased production of active oxygen forms and activation of lipid peroxidation (LOP) under these conditions. But reperfusion is the “necessary evil” [4]. The sooner it happens – the less permanent the damage is. In today’s medicine mechanisms of reperfusion injury are called oxidative stress, which changes the redox balance (prooxidant – antioxidant balance) in the body and shows as accumulation of LOP toxic products and compensatory change in component activity of antioxidant system [1, 2, 5, 6].

Today many researches investigate the process of oxidative stress in patients with Q-wave AMI and ARF caused compression injury, when SCENAR-therapy is included into the multiple therapy [3, 8]. They prove that in comparison with other methods multiple therapy with SCENAR-therapy gives better clinical results due to arresting of the oxidative stress phenomena. We decided to continue investigations and find out is there any specific SCENAR-therapy effect on the oxidative stress in patients from the two groups.

Research objective

Investigate is there any specific SCENAR-therapy effect on the state of the blood plasma redox balance in patients with Q-wave AMI and ARF caused by compression injury.

Research task

Compare initial level and dynamics of primary, secondary and final LOP products in the blood plasma of patients with the indicated pathology: conjugated dienes (CD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and schiff bases (SB), as well as catalase (CA) and ceruloplasmin (CP) activity.

Materials and methods

Considering the research tasks and objectives we compared biochemical blood indices in both groups where patients were given standard treatment complemented with skin stimulation using SCENAR-97.4.

I group – 17 patients with ARF caused by compression injury.

The patients were treated using one of the two general stimulation methods: “3 pathways and 6 points” and “collar zone, forehead, adrenals” in the subjectively dosed mode (SDM). The treatment course started on patient’s admission to the Acute Hemodialysis Department and included 10 daily sessions. The blood samples for biochemical tests were taken on admission and on the 1-2 day of diuresis recovery. It should be noted that average anuretic period in this group was 11.3±1.3 days.

II group – 30 patients with Q-wave AMI that had contradictions to thrombolytic therapy.

In these group patients were treated using one of the two general stimulation methods: “3 pathways and 6 points” and “collar zone, forehead, adrenals”. Stimulation of the standard treatment zones was complemented with stimulation of heart zone (5-10 min) and pericardium meridian points (PC4, PC6 and PC7) on both arms (2-3 minutes). The treatment course included 10-14 daily sessions and started at the very first day of the disease. The blood samples were taken on admission and on the 16 day of treatment.

The quantity of conjugated dienes (CD) was determined  pectrophotometrically using I.D. Stalnaya method (1977). The content of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) was measured by M.D. Stalnaya  and T.D. Gorishvili method (1977). To determine Schiff Bases (SB), lipids were extracted from plasma using the Bligh-Dyer method (1959). Catalase activity (CA) in the blood plasma was determined using M.A. Korolyuk et al. method (1988). The oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin (CP) was determined using the Revin’s method adapted by V.G.Kolba and V.S.Kamyshnikov (1982).

Indices of patients in both groups were compared with the indices of almost healthy donors-volunteers.

Results and discussion

The content of LOP products and activity of blood plasma enzymic antioxidants in patients with ARF caused by compression injury before and after multiple treatment complemented with SCENAR-therapy are given in the Table 1.

Table 1

Dynamics of LPO products and activity of blood plasma enzymic antioxidants in the patients from I group

Index Donors,

n =20

ARF patients,

(n=17)

Before treatmentAfter treatment
Conjugated dienes,

nmol/mL

13.69±1.0820.54±2,71 (+50.0%)

?<0.05

14.00±11.90 (+2,3%)

?>0.1; 0.05<?1<0.1

Malonic dialdehyde,

nmol/mL

27.97±2.1640.58±2.13 (+45,1%)

?<0.01

33.05±2.04 (+18.2%)

0.05<?<0.1; ?1<0.05

Schiff bases,

arbitrary unit/mL

1.41±0.061.88±0.10 (+33.3%)

?<0.01

1.58±0.07 (+12.1%)

0.05<?<0.1; ?1<0.05

Catalase,

nmol ?2?2/ mL

16.31±1.2412.79±1.35 (-21.6%)

0.05<?<0.1

16.05±1.25 (-1.6%)

?>0.1; 0.05<?1<0.1

Ceruloplasmin,

?mol/L

1.31±0.080.72±0.09 (-45.0%)

?<0.01

1.08±0.09 (-17.6%)

0.05<P<0.1; ?1<0.05

Note: p – significance of change as compared with donors;

p1 – significance of change as compared with initial values;

numbers in parentheses show the percentage of the index change

as compared with donors;

The table shows that on admission I group patients had essential disbalance in the redox balance of the blood plasma manifested as essential hypernorm of the CD, MDA and SB content by 50.0%, 45.1% and 33% respectively. Activity of blood plasma enzymic antioxidants was low: CA by 21%, CP by 45%. It should be noted that such a decrease in CA activity was not so significant (0.05<p<0.1), while in CP activity it was really significant.

As a result of multiple treatment complemented with SCENAR-therapy by the time diuresis recovered the correlation of free radical LOP intensity and AOS activity changed. Positive dynamics manifested as decrease of MDA, SB and CP activity if compared to the initial values was statistically true (p1<0.05); decrease of CD and CA activity was almost true. Comparison of these indices with the conventional norm showed that CD and CA activity reached it, while MDA, SB and CP activity became closer to the conventional norm. In the very end CD, MDA and SB indices were 2.3%, 18.2% and 12.1% above norm respectively. CA activity changed not so significantly – it increased just by 1.6%, while CP activity increased significantly, but still was 17.6% below the norm.

The level of LPO products accumulation and activity of blood plasma antioxidants in patients with AMI before and after multiple treatment complemented with SCENAR-therapy are given in the Table 2.

Table 2

Dynamics of LPO products and activity of blood plasma enzymic antioxidants in the patients from I group

Index Donors,

n =36

ARF patients,

n=30

Before treatmentAfter treatment
Conjugated dienes,

nmol/mL

12.4 ± 1.729.6 ± 1.9

?<0.001 (+138.7%)

23. 7 ± 1.8 (+91.1%)

?<0.001; ?1< 0.05

Malonic dialdehyde,

nmol/mL

20.9 ± 1.647.6 ± 1.7

?<0.001 (+127.8%)

44.4 ± 1.5 (+112.4%)

?<0.001; p1 > 0.1

Schiff bases,

arbitrary unit/mL

1.06 ± 0.091.65 ± 0.13

?<0.001 (+55.7%)

1.09 ± 0.07 (+2.8%)

p>0.1; ?1<0.005

Catalase,

nmol ?2?2/ mL

17.30 ± 1.3714.50 ± 2.20

p>0.1 (-16.2%)

10.23 ± 1.04 (-40.9%)

?<0.001; 0.05<p1<0.1

Ceruloplasmin,

?mol/L

1.08 ± 0.081.40 ± 0.11

p<0.05 (+29.6%)

1.41 ± 0.09 (+30.6%)

p<0.05; ?1>0.1

Note:  p – significance of change as compared with donors;

p1 – significance of change as compared with initial values;

numbers in parentheses show the percentage of the index change

as compared with donors;

In II group patients the content of all LPO products before treatment was significantly (p<0.001) above the control values: CD – by 138.7%, MDA– by 127.8% and SF – by 55.7%. Moreover changes in antioxidant system functionality were detected. Blood samples before treatment showed that in patients’ blood plasma CP oxidative activity increased by 29.6%, while dynamics of CA activity was not significant if compared to the control values.

Complementing standard therapy with SCENAR-therapy significantly helped to inhibit intensity of all LOP stages. That was showed as decrease of blood plasma molecular products. The CD level decreased significantly, but still was above the control values by 91.1%. The tendency of MDA dynamics was the same and after the treatment still was 112.4% above the control values. The most evident and intense effect of multiple therapy complemented with SCENAR-therapy was on toxic final LOP products, SB level by the end of the treatment course didn’t significantly differ from the donor indices. High level of CP oxidative activity still remained by the end of the treatment course and was 30.6% above the conventional norm. CA activity during the treatment decreased by 40.9% if compared to the normal values, but if compared to the initial values only insignificant decrease was registered.

The indices of CD, MDA and SB in the blood plasma in patients with ARF caused compression injury and in patients with AMI before and after the treatment (percentagewise compared to conventional norm) are given in the Diagram 1.

Diagram 1

Dynamics of CD, MDA and SB indices in the blood plasma of both groups

The Diagram 1 shows that before the treatment LOP products of the testees were significantly high. The multiple therapy complemented with SCENAR-therapy caused decrease in the accumulation of primary, secondary and final LOP products.

Dynamics of activity of the blood plasma CA and CP in patients from both groups after the treatment (percentagewise compared to conventional norm) is given in the Diagram 2.

Diagram 2

Dynamics of CA and CP activity in the blood plasma of both groups

 

It was already stated above that catalase activity of the II group patients before the treatment didn’t differ significantly from the conventional norm, only in ARF patients it tended to decrease. It should be noted that essential part of the catalase pool localizes in erythrocyte cytoplasm. In extracellular water it becomes inactive very soon. Increase of CA in the blood plasma can sign that it has released from the erythrocytes as a result of pathologically high membrane permeability or even their destruction [6]. Moreover, this index characterizes utilization rate of hydrogen peroxide in the blood plasma and its decrease during the treatment. That is registered in AMI patients and can be explained as result of generation decrease of active oxygen forms under the influence of the treatment. In the group with ARF patients no significant therapeutic effect on the catalyze activity was registered.

As against to CA, dynamics of CP activity differed significantly in the groups. In I group patients CP activity was 45% lower if compared to the donor values, and in the II group it was 29.6% higher. Such a difference in values can be explained by the period of time the disease aroused. Let’s make it clear. It is known that CP refers to proteins of acute phase and activity decrease in inflammation or after the injury, on one medical evidence by 2-3 times and on another by 30-60%, is considered as compensatory reaction directed to preserve plasma antioxidant potential and maintain copper and zinc metabolism at the optimal level [6]. This reaction was registered in patients with AMI at the very first days of the disease. In patients with compression injury ARF developed in some days after the injury, that’s why by the moment SCENAR-therapy was included into the treatment and blood samples for biochemical indices were made oxidative stress was more intense and manifested in deterioration of plasma capacity, in particular in decrease of CP activity.

The diagram shows that the therapeutic effect on the CP activity in the groups was different. As a result of multiple therapy complemented with SCENAR-therapy in patients with ARF low activity of blood CP significantly increased, while in patients with AMI high activity of main plasma oxidant didn’t change, i.e. compensatory activation of this antioxidant preserved, thus preserving antioxidant capacity of the blood plasma.

Findings

  1. At the very first days of the disease patients with ischemic organ injury, in particular Q-wave myocardial infarction and acute renal failure caused by compression injury, have oxidative stress, which makes the redox balance of the blood plasma disordered.
  2. Comparing the effect of multiple treatment complemented with SCENAR-therapy on the oxidative stress in patients from both groups we detected:
    – universal effect of inhibiting high activity of lipid perioxidation in blood plasma, which manifests as decrease in LOP molecular products accumulation.
    – regulating effect on the influence on the state of antioxidant system activity of blood plasma.

 

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Pathogenetic Principles of SCENAR-therapy in Multiple Therapy of Duodenal Ulcer

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Translation from Russian to English Language

Publication: Reflexology Journal, Issue No: 3 (7), 2005, pp. 43-47

Authors: Kochurova I., Cimmerman I., Vladimirsky E. Perm State Medical Academy, Department of faculty therapy, clinical pharmacology, physiotherapy and traditional methods of treatment

Article name: Pathogenetic Principles of SCENAR-therapy in Multiple Therapy of Duodenal Ulcer

Key words: SCENAR, gastroenterology, duodenal ulcer

Summary: We tried one of the new physical methods based on low-frequency pulse electrotherapy – SCENAR-therapy – as an alternative opportunity of duodenal ulcer management as it normalizes disturbed mechanisms of the body’s adaptive regulation and self-regulation. The influence of SCENAR-therapy on the clinical and functional gastric index of 72 duodenal ulcer patients was studied. Positive SCENAR-therapy effects were revealed in the majority of the patients. The combination of the conservative drug management and SCENAR-therapy shortens ulcer healing, promotes eradication of Helicobacter pylori, and improves the condition of gastro duodenal mucous.

Pathogenetic Principles of SCENAR-therapy in Multiple Therapy of Duodenal Ulcer

Nowadays SCENAR-therapy is in common practice in physiotherapy. SCENAR-therapy is a sort of low-frequency impulse electrotherapy and can be referred to the methods of reflex anesthesia (as the methods of electro acupuncture and transdermal electric stimulation of nerves). Their analgetic effect is connected with activation of endogenous antinociceptive system. Today, we’ve got various arguments of participation of antinociceptive transmitter systems in the mechanisms of reflex anesthesia [11]. The role of opioid, serotonin and noradrenergic systems in realization of reflex analgesia is proved here (F.Cervero, 1995). For treatment procedure conduction by these methods is recommended to choose areas, which are reflexively connected with sickly areas for the purpose of activation mechanisms of segmental inhibition, and also to influence on zones, which are distant from sickly area, for mobilization of central antinociceptive processes.

Parallel with peripheral effect, which is determined by peripheral of biologically active substances [6], the SCENAR-therapy method has central effect, mobilizing regulative mechanisms of system of organism recovery [27]. In many respects, it’s connected with the episodes of brain electrical activity synchronization at the leading role of forward hypothalamus, which coordinates the activity of vegetative nervous system [28]. After stimulation the heightened slow-wave activity and parasympathetic tonus can be kept for one day (the aftereffect). In papers of L.X.Garkavy and joint authors [3], there was proved that such electrophysiological picture correlates with antistress reaction of training of the animals and human being.  Exactly after its development, these researchers join the forming of SCENAR-therapy effects. The mechanism of SCENAR-therapy impact is not studied enough. Taking into account the broad pathology spectrum, the researchers make guess-work about the non-specific character of its therapeutic action, i.e. about the active participation of reciprocal non-specific adaptive organism reactions [3, 8].

The mechanism of SCENAR-therapy impact, by data of some authors, is explained as nervous-reflex mechanism with activation of neurohumoral element through the local, segmental and generalized reactions [5, 17], and also from the position of the theory of functional systems forming (after P.K. Anohin) [8, 18]. Recently, some of the researchers have tried to examine various forms of vital activity and also the condition of disease in terms of informative principle [8, 20]. They admit that the basis of disease is formed by dyscrasia (disorder of substances, energies and information), some it becomes evident that one of the tendency of treatment is normalization of the indexes. The medical effects of many modern physiotherapy methods are pointed to activation of protecting organism mechanisms by principle of self-regulation, and some methods of traditional medicine provides the recovery of such homeostasis indexes as energy and information. So the SCENAR-therapy can be examined as the method of orthodox medicine (the section of electrotherapy) on the one side, but the principles and methodology brings it together with traditional methods [18]. Among the main medical effects of SCENAR-therapy we can marked my(o)neurostimulative, analgetic, trophic, local vasoactive, immunomodulatory and etc.[7]

It’s marked, that SCENAR-therapy, parallel with elimination of disorders, determined by the main disease, produces positive shifts from the direction of attendant pathology. Such wide spectrum of SCENAR-therapy impact is explained by the fact that for various diseases, without reference to localization of pathologic process, there can be reactions of the same type, supporting the mobilizing of pathogenesis mechanisms and increasing of organism resistance [3].Finally, the effect of SCENAR-therapy is formed under the participation of various regulative organism systems, they are: nervous, hormonal, immune, etc [6, 18]. Among the pantoclinical effects of SCENAR-therapy, it’s important to point out the activity inhibition of ??? product, producing the antimitotic and cytotoxic actions on alive cells and tissues [16, 23].After the course of SCENAR-therapy is pointed the increasing of activity of catalase and the whole peroxidase activity within 3 and 1,5 times correspondingly, and the decreasing of malonic dialdehyde (???) within 25-30%[2].

The influence of SCENAR-therapy on common adaptive possibilities of organism is appeared in tonus optimization of sympathetic and parasympathetic departments of vegetative nervous system (VNS) [3]. So, the SCENAR-therapy mobilizes the mechanisms, controlling the processes of regeneration, adaptation and regulation, both on local and common levels. These provide the appropriate answer of the organism on the influence of various external agents, demanding the corresponding reactions. In this connection, the SCENAR-therapy method can be applied for various pathologic conditions with the purpose of stimulation of the adaptation processes and the elimination of functional disorders (at their reversibility) [18].

Nowadays SCENAR-therapy is a success in treating of radicular syndrome for the patient with spinal osteochondrosis, the diseases of peripheral nervous system, neurososes, CAD, arterial hypertension and etc.

At once, there is little information of SCENAR therapy possibilities in treating of alimentary organs diseases, including duodenal ulcer. Among the patients with gastroenterological profile, the effect of SCENAR-therapy is marked during the treating of stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer [22], and exacerbation of chronic gastritis [19, 22], acalculous cholecystitis with biliary dyskinesia [4], chronic pancreatitis [14], during combined treatment of viral  hepatitis [15]; at the syndrome of irritated bowels [14], and during  the post-surgical period after cholecystectomy [21].

N.N.Hazova and joint authors [22] give the results of therapeutic effectiveness of SCENAR-therapy method in treating of duodenal ulcer and chronic erosive gastroduodenitis (of children) in combination with the antisecretory (omeprasol),  anthelion bacillus (metronidazole) drugs, antacids and reparants (sea-buckthorn oil). 95% of patients have the scarring of ulcerative defect after 20 days of treating.

The clinical effect was appeared by time reducing of pain syndrome (in 1-2 days), the decreasing of dyspepsia (in 2-3 days), the liquidation of palpational sickliness (in 5-7 days) and the normalization of gastrointestinal tract motion activity (quick elimination of gastroduodenitial and duodenogastric refluxes.

The improvement of condition and spirits and the normalization of dream and appetite became evident with most of children after 2-3 procedures of SCENAR-therapy. There is also described the positive effect in case of duodenal ulcer recidivating complicated by bleeding.

In a number of separate clinical researches was shown, that for the patients with stomach and duodenal ulcer, SCENAR-therapy provides the considerable decreasing of subject symptomatology at the expense of spasmolytic and analgesic action and leads to quick forming of scar, the treatment time reducing and remission prolongation [4]. At the same time, the pain syndrome is stopped usually in 2-3 days, but dyspeptic one – 3-4 days afterwards.

The disappearance of ulcer defect may be observed in 21 days for 89-92% of cases. The peculiarity of healing effect of SCENAR-therapy in case of recurrent stomach ulcer is the closing of ulcer defect by the type of marginal epithelization, and some times without  rough connecting-woven scar formation [19]. G.V.Subbotina observes after history of SCENAR-monotherapy in case of stomach and duodenal ulcer recurrent. She marked the lack of any reccurents (clinical and endoscopic data) for two years after the course of treating [19].

The main recommended zones of treating impact during SCENAR-therapy for patients with duodenal ulcer are: epigastric area and segmental reflex zones [13].

The mode of impact is labial-steady with light compression under the frequency 50-70 Hz and 120-150Hz; the duration of medical séance (exposition)is about 30 minutes; the course is 10-12 procedures daily or every other day [9]. The electro puncture method is also used on appropriate biologically active points [24].

P.P.Lashedko points out the possibility of using SCENAR-therapy with the aim of decreasing of curculatory-microrculatory hypoxia degree and prevention of its development to the patients with erosive-ulcer defects of mucous of stomach and duodenum.  At the same time it’s recommended to start the treating within the next few hours after operation, the procedures must be done every day or two times a day and the impact on the projection area of solar plexus must be also done [12].

Starting from the stomach ulcer pathogenesis conception [25], in keeping with it in its development take part not only local factors of pathogenesis (acido peptic and infectious), but also the disfunctions of adaptive regulation and self-regulation mechanisms, stomach functions on various levels, starting with gastroduodenitial self-regulation system and ending with corticosubcortical relations, the using of SCENAR-therapy during the stomach ulcer recurrent is pathogenetically justified.

At the same time, the specific mechanisms of SCENAR-therapy medical impact during the stomach ulcer recurrent, particular, the character of its influence on acid-forming and motor function of stomach, contamination mucous coat of stomach Hp-infection, the activity and intensity of associated with SU chronic gastritis, vegetative and psycho emotional status of patients, the condition of lipid peroxidation and cerebral hemodynamics  are not studied well. In this connection, we developed the research of SCENAR-therapy medical impact effectiveness during the stomach ulcer recurrent, first of all from the position of its influence on common pathogenetic factors of ulcer-forming [1, 10, and 26].

Task of the Research

To study the possible mechanisms of SCENAR-therapy medical impact on the patients with stomach and duodenal ulcer and estimate its clinical effectiveness both as monotherapy and as a complex with traditional pharmacotherapeutic means (antisecretory and anthelion bacterium) during duodenal ulcer recurrent.

Materials and Methods

72 patients (56 man and 16 women) with clinical and endoscopic signs of duodenal ulcer at the age of 16-65 years (average age was 27,8±1,4years) were examined. They were divided into 3 groups. The first group (26 patients) was treated with the SCENAR-monotherapy, by the devices “SCENAR-97.1” and “SCENAR-97.4” in continuous and individually dosated regimen during 30 minutes (the course is consisted of 10 séances). The 2nd group (21 patients) got SCENAR-therapy against in common with antisecretory therapy (omeprazole 40mg/day, for 2 weeks), the 3rd group (25patients) – got SCENAR-therapy in conjunction with “threefold” 7-daily scheme of eradicative therapy (omeprazole 40mg/day, clarithromycin 1000mg/day, amoxicillin 2000mg/day).

In all groups the impact was done on the epigastric area by segmental-reflex method and transcerebrally by the common influence method [13]. The control group consisted of 25 patients with DU, who got just traditional antiulcer pharmacotherapy.

The duration of disease averages 6,87±1,13 years (from 1 to 30 years). 23 patients (31,94%) suffer this disease for the first time, and the slight and medium-weight clinical course was made with 49 patients (68,06%). The patients with complicated duodenal ulcer course were not included. As for attendant diseases, arterial hypertension were detected at 3 patients (4,2%), chronic bronchitis were detected at 2 patients (2,8%) and vegetative dystonia – at 11 patients. Initially by ???, 59 (819%) of patients suffer from single ulcers, and 13 (18,1%)- from double (“mirror”)  ulcers. At the same time the average proportions of duodenal ulcers were 0,75±0,04cm. The estimation of clinical symptoms were made before treating (the presence of pain syndrome and its’ intensity, dyspepsical effects in the form of heartburn, eructation, nausea and vomiting), ???, endogastric express-pH- metria (with pH registration in cardiac orifice, body and antral department of ulcer).  During the treating were estimated the dynamics of clinical symptoms – first from 2-weeks therapy course, and then – every week, up to the absolute scarring of ulcer defect, the endoscopic control after the condition of mucous coat of stomach and ??? were made, morphologically and with the help of quick urease test were estimated the quality of its contamination Hp, the activity and intensity of inflammatory process. The secretory and motor function of stomach were investigated in dynamics, the vegetative and psycho emotional status of patient were also investigated.

Results and Discussions 

The overwhelming majority of patients before the course of (medical) treatment complained on day and night pains in epigastric, dyspepsical effects of various quality of intensity: heartburn – 55 (76,4%), eructation and vomiting – 13 (18,1%) and 4 (5,6%) of patients. The including of SCENAR-therapy in complex of medical measures was determined by more quick in comparison with control, the liquidation of pain, dyspepsical and asthenovegetative syndromes. In control group the pain syndrome reduction occurred in 2-3 days after, the asthenovegetative effect continued for 4 days longer, the liquidation time of objective clinical symptoms of disease recurrent (local palpatory pain, Mendel’s symptom and the symptom of muscular defense).The quickest liquidation of dyspepsical effect occurred in group of patient who have got SCENAR-therapy with omeprazolon. The asthenovegetative complaints reduced and eliminated in this group (in 3-6 days). SCENAR-monotherapy influenced positively on intensity of pain syndrome.

The essential decreasing of epigastric pain was evident in 2 days (after 1-2 procedures). The analgesic effect of SCENAR-therapy is explained by its possibility for activation of fine peptide nerve fiber and mediates changing in brain tissue of biologically-active materials, which have antinociceptive qualities (glutamic and aspartic acids, serotonin etc.) [6,28], and also by elimination of gastric dismotor, which underlines the pain syndrome during duodenal ulcer. The important criterion of treating was endoscopic research (???-control) of gastro duodenal zone condition (table 1). The scheme of treating with using of SCENAR-monotherapy and its combination with “triple” eradicable therapy allowed to have the quickest speed of ulcer defect scarring.

So, in two weeks of treating the ulcer wasn’t defined in 1st group at 65,38% of patients and at 64% in 3rd group, and after 3 weeks, there are the whole healing with all the patients. At the same time in control group the ulcer defect eliminated at 48% and 76% of patients in 2 and 3 weeks.

Table 1

The time of duodenal ulcers scarring

The group of patients In 2 weeks

(abs, %)

In 3 weeks

(?bs, %)

Time(days)
I group(n=26)17 (65,38%)26 (100%)16,2± 0,68

p<0,05

II group (n=21)12 (57,14%)19 (90,48%)17,12± 1,05

p>0,05

III group (n=25)16 (64%)25 (100%)16,52± 0,69

p?0,05

The control n=25)12 (48%)19 (76 %)19,32±1,16

As a whole, the average time of ulcer scarring in groups with using of SCENAR-therapy is shorter on 3-4days in comparison with control (on average 16,71±0,47 days), here some of the patients as opposed to control group had epithelization of ulcer defect without forming of rough connecting-woven scar. Against a background of treating the diffuse gastroduodenitis of 76,4% of patients transformed in focal one, and mucous tunic was absolutely normal for 4 patients (5,6%). Under the results of quick urease test, breathing test and histological research of biopsy material (methylene blue coloring), most of patients (83,3%) have contamination mucous coat of stomach Hp-infection. The course of SCENAR-therapy didn’t lead to Hp eradication in 1st and 2nd group, but the quality of mucous coat of stomach Hp colonization after the SCENAR-therapy reduced incidentally (p>0,05). At the same time as for the 3rd group, the Hp-infection eradication began by the results both of urease, breathing test and morphological data. As for the 3rd group after the therapy there were occurred the semination in pyloric department mucous coat of stomach Hp-infection (4 patients – 16%)-by the results of quick urease test, and by morphological test – with 3 patients (12%). So, the positive eradication was seen in 88% of cases in 3rd group.

Before the treating most of the patients (84,7%) had the evident hyperacidity of body and antral department of stomach, the moderate hyperacidity (15,3 % of patients) and norm acidity in 2,8%. After the course of SCENAR-monotherapy the increasing of pH in body and antral department of stomach are registered, the increasing of pH level in all departments of stomach (p,0,001) is marked  when SCENAR-therapy was  in conjunction with omeprasol and “triple” scheme of Hp eradication. The immature zone (the place of transition of subacid pH (6,0-4,0)value up to sharply acid (pH<3,0) didn’t undergo any essential changing. There became reliable decreasing of zone of maximal acidity in all investigated groups. The combined therapy in the conjunction with antisecretory and anthelicobacterian

Substances provided the defined abscopal effect on the acid-forming processes in stomach, but the pH-metria indicators in basic groups didn’t differ from one in control group. The including of SCENAR-therapy in combined treatment of duodenal ulcer recurrent had “modulatory” impact on the condition of stomach motor function. When the stomach motor activity is initially decreased, the growth of frequency indicators of stomach motor oscillations, their average amplitude and total intensity of stomach biopotentials came to 31,4%, 75,4 % and 139,1 % conformably, and finally they’ve got normal condition. During the initial hyper kinesis, there are marked the decreasing of electrogastrography indicators half as less again (p<0,001). There are discovered the possibility of SCENAR-influence to remove the manifestations of dyskinesia, which has been proved by the increasing of symmetric (from 34% to 91%) and single modal (from 49% to 96%) variational curve amplitude (VCA)  in all the investigated groups.

During the studying the VNS condition the parasympathetic tonus of nervous system prevailed in most cases (76,3% of patients), and sympathetic one- in others (13,9%-of patients). Including the hyper vagotonia, which was evident for 43,1% of patients and hyper sympathicatonia (5,6% of patients) [1]. Vegetative reactivity (VR) for most of patients (39.3%) was unnatural; this proved the predomination parasympathetic tonus of nervous system. The redundant VR was marked at 10,7% of patients and was connected with initial sympathicatonia. There was detected the overstrain of both department of nervous system during the security of action (SA), and 68,4% of patients showed the  disfunction of balance and correlation between them. The including of SCENAR-therapy in treating of duodenal ulcer recurrent led to the normalization of not only initially unnatural but also initially redundant vegetative reactions (p<0,05), and also provided the decreasing of  heightened indicators either of clinostatic (p<0,02) or orthostatic (p<0,05) probes. Here at the background of pharmacotherapy (control) the vegetative status hasn’t change much.

Conclusions

The including of SCENAR-therapy in combined treatment during the duodenal ulcer recurrent, positively influences on clinical course and functional condition of gastro duodenal zone, stimulates reparative processes and decreases the inflammation activity of mucous coat of stomach. In mechanisms of medical influence of SCENAR-therapy, there such predominating factors as the activation of indicators of “defiance” and the impact on common mechanisms of adaptive regulation of gastro duodenal zone self-regulation [5].

Al the researches let us talk about SCENAR-therapy as the effective method of duodenal ulcer recurrent treatment, either like monotherapy or as a component in combined medicine treatment.

References

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SCENAR in Multiple Non-drug Stress Therapy

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Publication: Reflexology Journal, Issue No: 3 (7), 2005, pp. 48-51)

Authors: Minenko A., I.M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy  Department of non-drug therapies and clinical physiology

Article name: SCENAR in Multiple Non-drug Stress Therapy

Key words: SCENAR, psychiatry, stress

Summary: Research results described in the article show the effectiveness of combining non-drug therapies for treating stress disorders of various genesis. One of such combinations is SCENAR-therapy + psychotherapy (73.1% effectiveness), which is quite effective in treating stress.

SCENAR in Multiple Non-drug Stress Therapy

The problem of stress disorders is of current interest and importance nowadays and worth special attention. In recent years social-psychological situation in Russia and in the whole world – steady increase of terror acts, armed conflicts, man-made and natural disasters, high crime rate – causes great stress disorders and psychological disadaptation of people.

Different stress disorders and their management is the problem of current importance in today’s medicine. This paper describes the investigations and tests directed to study the management of stress disorders (SD) of various genesis with different combinations of non-drug therapies. The test groups included patients with SD of different genesis: troopers from the Special Police Force of the Russian Ministry of Interior, who fought on the territory of the Chechen Republic, representatives of flight professions (line pilots, navigators, flight-engineer) that took part in local war conflicts, assaulted women, officers from Federal Security Service of Russia (man and women).

To make analysis and comparison of therapy effectiveness easier, patients with different genesis were randomly divided into subgroups considering the therapies used.  Within the subgroup patients had only different non-drug therapies. It should be noted that psychotherapeutic sessions were as obligatory therapy in all the subgroups (both treatment and control).

RESEARCH AIM

Develop the universal scheme of non-drug therapy for treating consequences of stress disorders (SD) of various genesis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Clinical-diagnostic estimation of psychopathological phenomena was based on the international statistical classification of diseases, traumas and causes of death of the 10th review (ICD-10, paragraph F 43), adapted to be used in Russia and DSM-III.

Following the research aim and trying to fulfill the tasks set we selected the patients that had stress disorders of various genesis to form the test groups:

  • 137 troopers from the Special Police Force of the Russian Ministry of Interior, who fought on the territory of the Chechen Republic (men, age 18-37)
  • 124 representatives of flight professions (line pilots, navigators, flight-engineers) that took part in local war conflicts (men, age 25-44)
  • 80 officers from the Federal Security Service of Russia (32 men, age 22-51, 48 women, age 25-56).
  • 74 assaulted women (age 14-62)

Studying personality, mental and somatic state of the patients we used some psychodiagnostic tests, as well as conducted clinical dialogue with them. The main tests were: standard method of character research, Lushcher’s color selection test, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). In addition to the abovementioned methods for estimating treatment effectiveness we also used “well-being, activity, spirit” method.

We also used a complex of vegetative indices: heart and respiratory rate, systolic pressure and diasystolic pressure.

After the stress myofascial trigger points, both active and passive, are found when palpating. In modern literature myofascial trigger points are considered to be hypersensitive areas in the indurated skeletal muscle cord or fascia. Active trigger point is always painful. It lies in the palpated burst of muscle fibers and prevents muscle sprain. Trigger points can also signify the progression of reflected pain in the areas essential for the affected muscle. Latent trigger points cause pain only when palpating – a patient flinches every time the trigger point is palpated. Every muscle has individual myofascial pain syndrome with a certain picture of pain reflection. Usually a patient remembers clearly the movement or action that caused pain. The affected muscles have a limited range of motions. Clinical manifestations of myofascial syndrome were counted numerically according to the indicator of myofascial syndrome (IMS) (R.A. Yakupov, 2001):

Where

I – number of myofascial trigger points for one muscle,

N – number of affected muscles,

MP – myofascial painfullness (0-3 points),

RMP – reflected MP (0-3 points),

MPD – MP duration (0-3 points),

MTR – muscle trophic (0-3 points),

MT – muscle tension (0-3 points).

According to the research aim clinical-experimental research was done in several stages considering the set algorithm of investigation and rehabilitation of patients that have suffered from stress disorders of various genesis.

1 stage – psycho-physiological investigation aimed at defining people that need functional correction of well-being, which was temporary lost because of stress disorder

2 stage – clinical-laboratory research at treatment and clinical-physiological departments

3 stage – formation of clinical-rehabilitation groups

4 stage – rehabilitation

5 stage – estimation of rehabilitation effectiveness

Examination complex was done three times:

  • define individual-typological features, estimate background state and workout treatment-rehabilitation therapy
  • define adequacy and in-time correction of the treatment done at 11-12 day
  • evaluate therapy effectiveness

Most common complaints at the examination:

  1. Hyperexastibility – 404 patients (97.3%)
  2. Decrease in mental and physical performance – 401 patients (96.6%)
  3. Psychosomatic manifestations: BP variations, headaches, gastralgia, myalgia and cardialgia –396 people (95.4%)
  4. Hyperirritability – 378 people (91.1%)
  5. Decrease in natural instincts – 352 people (84.8%)
  6. Insomnia – 378 people (91.1%)
  7. Reminiscences – 283 people (68.2%)
  8. Meteorolability – 270 people (65%)
  9. Senestopathy – 253 people (60.9%)
  10. Hyperhidrosis – 239 people (57.6%)
  11. Hyperawareness – 228 people (54.9%)
  12. Impaired thermoregulation – 211 people (50.8%)

To make analysis and comparison of therapy effectiveness easier, patients with different genesis were randomly divided into subgroups considering the therapies used.  Each group was divided into 3-5 subgroups, 24-28 patients in each; one of the subgroups in each group was control. Within the subgroup patients had only different non-drug therapies. It should be noted that psychotherapeutic sessions were as obligatory therapy in all the subgroups (both treatment and control).

The following therapies were used as non-dug multiple treatment:

  • homeopathic biopuncture
  • acupuncture
  • manual therapy
  • constitutional homeopathy
  • psychotherapy
  • SCENAR-therapy

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Research results showed that women who were raped are mostly subjected to stress disorders (4 group – 91.4%).

The next group was women from Federal Security Service of Russia, whose professional activity is connected with constant physical and emotional overexertion and special duty assignments (3 group – 64.0%, 48 patients out of 75 examined).

Men from the 3rd group turned out to be less subjected to SD than women – 32.7%(32 patients out of 86 examined).

Stress disorders among troopers from the Special Police Force of the Russian Ministry of Interior (1 group), who fought on the territory of the Chechen Republic, were observed in 54.8%.

The results of our research showed that representatives of flight professions are mostly resistant to stress (2 group) – 36.5% (124 patients out of 340 examined).

After non-drug therapy patients had certain improvements of their state: decrease in fatigue and irritancy levels, as well as reminiscence, meteorolability and inner impaction, their sleep normalized and frequency of AD oscillations decreased, headaches went away, gastralgia, myalgia and cardialgia absolutely relieved, level of natural instincts also decreased – and all that signed that significant changes in the clinical picture have been achieved.

According to before-treatment-analyses of tetrapolar rheography only 47% patients had hyperkinetic hemodynamic type, 25% had eukynetic type, 28% had hypokynetic type.

After the sessions of homeopathic biopuncture combined with EEG-biofeedback distribution of prevailing homeopathic types have changed: 25% had hyperkynetic type, 56% had eukynetic type, 19% had hypokynetic type.

Non-drug therapy stimulated significant increase of alpha-rhythm intensity (from 45.93% up to 61.26%). That signs that psycho-emotional state of patients has improved and their beta rhythm has decreased (from 36.54% to 27.62%).

Moreover, rehabilitation sessions improved the mental state of the patients with stress disorders. We have studied the personality of all the patients and manifested three average types of personalities that changed after non-drug therapy for SD. After-treatment analyses of personality showed the decrease in height of the average profile practically in all the scales (mostly in 1,2,7 scales). Positive dynamics was observed in all the groups and that signs positive effects of non-drug therapies in treating SD of various genesis, without any doubts that is psychologically important.

In all the tested groups Lushcher’s test and “well-being, activity, spirit” method showed the tendency to stabilization of emotional tolerance, decrease in stress level, performance capability, significant increase in activity indices (of 34.5%), well-being (35.7%), spirit (of 37.8%).

The most effective non-drug therapies were defined by comparing clinical effectiveness of different schemes for treating stress disorders of various genesis:

  • homeopathic biopuncture + psychotherapy (94.7% effectiveness)
  • biofeedback therapy + psychotherapy (81.3% effectiveness)
  • constitutional homeopathy + psychotherapy (78.9% effectiveness)
  • SCENAR-therapy + psychotherapy (73/1% effectiveness)
  • manual therapy + psychotherapy (65.8% effectiveness)

The most significant changes in “well-being, activity, spirit” method, indicator of myofascial syndome and reduction of complaints were observed in the subgroups where patients were treated with homeopathic biopuncture.

Dynamics of complaints under the influence of homeopathic biopuncture is shown on the graph.

The combination of homeopathic biopuncture and psychotherapy in all the tested groups (effectiveness up to 94.7%) had a very high effect on the patients and that was the reason to consider it as a universal scheme for correcting health in SD of various genesis.

The method technique is the following: clinically actual trigger points that lie in the interested myofascial structures are manifested when palpating.

Kinetic investigation allows to define the nucleolus 1.5-3mm in diameter in the thickness of the local tensed area. The pain inside the nucleolus is severe, while in some millimeters from its borders it relieves significantly.

The TP found when palpating is fixed between a thumb and a finger and needle is syringed inside. Target accuracy is controlled by subjective feelings of a patient. The doctor searches for the most effective puncture point by moving the needle at different angle and with different depth till the patient feels arching, acute pain or burning. These feelings are obligatory and sign that the needle is very close to the nerve-ending. After that 2ml of homeopathic medicine (Cerebrum, Ovarium and Testis compositum depending on the stimulation zone) are injected inside the TP. Treatment session contribute to pain relief and muscle relaxation and there is no need to stimulate all the TP found. The doctor should only inactivate TP in the most easy-to-get extero- and  proprioceptive reflexogenic zones (for example: upper arm superficies, lumbus and interscapular region, posterior surface of a lower leg, lower-superficial of the hip, upper supperficial quadrant of the buttock and etc). In the picture you can see the most common points for injecting homeopathic medicine.

The SCENAR-technique was the following: stimulation of the cervical zone giving special attention to “sticking” zones, hyperpainful zones and zones that differ from the rest of the skin (before and after stimulation). These zones (asymmetries) were stimulated additionally (about 1 min) and total stimulation time was 20 min in average.

CONCLUSIONS

Research results showed that the combinations of non-drug therapies were effective when treating consequences of SD of various genesis (catamnesis from 1 till 3 years).

Therapies for treating myofascial pain syndromes inactivating painful trigger points by injecting homeopathic medicines inside them is available for everyone as it doesn’t require special medicine skills and therapy course numbers 5-7 sessions.

SCENAR-therapy is easy-to-apply, available for everyone, non-invasive and cost-effective. In perspective the effectiveness of SCENAR-therapy for treating stress disorders can be significantly improved, but that requires further investigations.

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